Overview of Bacterial Diseases in Poultry and their control

Bacteria are organisms which are small in size these are also called Microorganisms as we can’t see them with naked eye. Bacteria are present in almost all over the world and playing major role in an environment some species of bacteria can survive under very extreme condition. All animals contain number of bacteria in their bodies which may give harm or advantage to the body of bird.

By Abdul Samad, Muhammad Hamza, Sheraz Zafer, Junaid Shahid and Dr. Waqar Zaib

Bacterial Disease

The diseases which occur due to the bacteria such diseases are Called Bacterial Diseases. 

Bacterial Diseases in Poultry

  • Salmonelloses
  • Coli Infections
  • Fowl Cholera
  • Paratyphoid Infections
  • Cholangiohepatitis In Broiler Chickens
  • Riemerella Anatipestifer Infections
  • Necrotic Enteritis
  • Mycoplasma
  • Gangrenous Dermatitis
  • Chicken Tuberculosis
  • Infectious coryza

 

 

Here is short Explanation about above disease including The name of bacteria which is cause of that disease

Salmonellosis

Causative agent: Salmonella

Salmonella is an enteric microorganism that can contaminate practically all creatures including people. Salmonellosis in poultry is brought about by Gram-negative microorganisms from the class Salmonella

Signs.

  • Intestine hemorrhages
  • Off Feed

E.coli Infection

Causative agent: E.coli

Disease or infection in which accumulation body cells and tissue which is due to E.coli bacteria such disease is called  E.coli Infection.

Signs

  • Liver damage
  • Laziness
  • Off feed
  • Infection on liver

Fowl Cholera

Causative agent: Pasteurella multocida

Fowl cholera is a infectious disease of Avian Group which is due to a bacteria named as  Pasteurella multocida. Less mortality caused by this disease .Having some signs

Sign

  • Laziness
  • Swelling of wattle
  • Pneumonitis
  • Twisting neck

Paratyphoid Infections

Causitive agent: Salmonella

Parathyrioid is major disease of poultry which is due to unguided staff in feed industry as it is due to Salmonella. Feed is contaminated by salmonella.. Major source of Salmonella are feces by which salmonella is transferred to egg shell and then in the germinal disk.

Sign

  • Stress
  • Reduce in growth
  • Laziness
  • diarrhea
  • water deficiency in the body

 

Cholangiohepatitis (CAH) in broiler chickens

Causative agent: Unknown

Cholangiohepatitis (CAH) in broiler chickens is a condtion in which liver swells and become hard etiological agent is unknown yet but Clostridium perfringens was fount in liver some other bacteria like

  • Еscherichia coli
  • Pasteurella haemolytica
  • Streptococcus equisimilis
  • Campylobacter sp

Also found in liver and bile duct of infected birds

Signs

  • Enlargement of liver
  • Yellow liver
  • Hardness of liver
  • Loss of weight
  • Off feed

Riemerella Anatipestifer Infections

Causative agent: Riemerella anatipestifer

It is an infectious disease which effects ducks goose and other avian species.It is due to a gram negative bacteria Riemerella anatipestifer

Signs

  • Cough
  • Sneezing
  • Discharge from nose
  • Watery green feces
  • Nervous signs

Necrotic Enteritis

Causative agent: Clostridium perfringens

Necrotic enteritis is a poultry disease which is due to extra growth of Clostridium perfringens type A, and to a less extent type C, in the avian small intestine. C produce toxins. The intestinal wall would be damage by perfringens. Normally it effects the chickens at the age 2-6 weeks.

Signs

  • Severe type of Stress
  • Loose motions
  • Deficiency of water.
  • Off feed
  • Disarranged feathers

Mycoplasma

Causative Agent:-  Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is common respiratory disease of chickens

Signs

  • Water in eyes
  • Lesions on trachea
  • Runny nose
  • Cough
  • Off feed
  • Weight Loss

 

Gangrenous dermatitis

Causative Agent:  Clostridium septicum, C, perfringens type A, and Staphylococcus

It is disease in hens and other avian groups caused by Clostridium septicum, C, perfringens type A, and Staphylococcus in which high ratio of mortality and Narcosis of skin and thigh occur

Signs 

  • Dark color of skin, wing and breast
  • Loss of weight
  • Off feed

Chicken Tuberculosis

Causative agent: Mycobacterium avium subsp  avium

It is disease of birds which usually effects the small birds like pigeons and pheasant and also effect bird in free range

Signs

  • Weight gain
  • Loss in production
  • Stress

Infectious Coryza

Causative agent : Avibacterium paragallinarum

Infectious Coryza is a respiratory disease. Infectious Coryza occur due to a bacteria named as Avibacterium paragallinarum.Clinical signs of Infectious coryza are Runny nose, laziness and face swelling. Effected bird could be recover by using antibiotics at initial stage. We can prevent birds from infectious coryza by adopting appropriate measures of biosecurity, good managemental practices and doing vaccination of birds. Infectious Coryza seen in many country and it effect especially multistage farm.

 Signs

  • Swelling of Face.
  • Watery discharge from eyes and nose of bird.
  • Swelling of wattles.
  •  
  • Poor respiration
  • 10-40% decrease in egg production.
  •  

Control Measure for Bacterial Disease 

There are two method to control the disease

  • Use of Antibiotics
  • Biosecurity

Use of Antibiotics

  • Use of newly generated vaccine so that bird will be recover fast as bacteria will not resist those antibiotics.
  • Use of Registered antibiotics.
  • Use anti biotic according to dosage.

Biosecurity

  • We should follow the strict rule for bio security.
  • No one from outside should enter in the shed.
  • Use sanitized equipment.
  • Always use one time needle and sanitized needle while administration of antibiotics.
  • Disinfectant should use after one flock during cleaning of house.
  • In large farm BBB level of biosecurity should be adopt.

 

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