Infectious Bursal Disease: Avian AIDS

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science MNSUAM

By Abdul Samad, Dr. Atif Rehman, Dr. Hafeez Ur Rehman Ali Khera, Dr. Asif Raza, Dr.  Kashif Hussain, Dr. Asghar Abbas and M.Hamza

Introduction to disease:-

Infectious Bursal disease is viral disease which is common in al over world. In this type of disease bursa is badly affected by the virus. Birna virus is cause of this disease. As we know that B cell formed in bursa in this bursa damage by the virus so there will be lack of B cells in the body. B cells are performing vital role in immunity so if there will be less B Cells in the body immune system will be weak. IBD mostly effects a bird between the age of 14th -28th day. The causative agent of IBD Birna virus was identified in the United States of America in 1962. If Virus enters in a farm approximately all birds of the farm would be effect by the IBD but mortality rate of thise disease is approximately 20%. IBD effects Layer hen at the age of 2-6th  weeks. White leghorn is highly effected by this disease while the local breeds are less effect by IBD.

Other names:-

  • Gumboro
  • Avian AIDS as it destroys immune system by suppressing bursa and Thymes gland. It kills B cells and cause immunosuppression

Transmission Route of Disease

Disease is transmit though feces, or by eating of contaminated feed or drinking contaminated water. Generally feces are major source of the transmission of IBD as feces contain higher amount of virus. IBD transmit doors to doors by fomites. There are two serotype of IBD. Serotype1 which effects Chicken. While serotype 2 effects waterfowl and hens both but waterfowl are more resistive against this disease. As this disease is immunosuppressive it decrease the immune system’s efficiency so other diseases also attacks on the bird. Mostly Newcastle disease, IBH, CRD, Marek’s and IB attacks on bird when IBD minimize immunity.  IBD also found in some other birds like penguin etc. but it did not cause any disease or symptoms in them.

Clinical signs of IBD

  • Stress.
  • Anorexia.
  • Dehydration.
  • White pasty diarrhea.
  • Laziness.

Lesions

  • Enlargement of Bursa.
  • Haemorrhages or atrophy of Bursa.
  • Haemorrhages on Thigh muscles.
  • Dehydration.
  • Swollen kidney.
  • May leads to kidney failure.
  • Swollen urates.

Diagnose

  • IBD can be diagnose by PCR v2 gene is detected.
  • Isolation of virus technique.
  • Postmortem.
  • ELISA.
  • Calculation Antibody counts through serological technique.

. Treatment of Disease

As we know that there is no treatment for viral diseases so there is no treatment for IBD but we can minimize the effect of disease by doing following practices

  • Flushing of bird.
  • Use of antibiotic which may inhibit the secondary infection through bacteria.
  • Use of Multivitamin especially Vitamin E (Tocopherol) and Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid).
  • Use salted water or ORS which may help chick to meet salt and water requirement of the bird.
  • Supporting therapy.

How to do Flushing of bird

  • Add 4% sugar in the water.
  • Temperature of water should be moderate.
  • Use that water within 3-4 hours.

What is supporting therapy?  

In this we gave bird 1/3 ratio of milk and water in which some multivitamins are added this therapy will support bird to fight against disease.

Control of disease

There are two methods to control the disease

  • Biosecurity.
  • Vaccination.

Biosecurity

  • We should follow the strict rule for bio security.
  • No one from outside should enter in the shed.
  • Use sanitized equipment.
  • Always use one time needle and sanitized needle while doing vaccine.
  • Disinfectant should use after one flock during cleaning of house.
  • In large farm BBB level of biosecurity should be adopt.

Vaccination

Vaccination of IBD should be done at the age of 14 day. There should be two doses of vaccination for IBD one on 14th day other dose on 28th day as a booster dose. It will provide immunity to the bird.

Precautions

 There are some precautions while performing vaccination.

  • Use always sanitized and clean container for vaccination.
  • Check the bird is there any sign of IBD if yes than do not vaccine to the bird as it may cause high mortality ratio as virus of IBD already present in the body by this vaccine it would be stronger.
  • All bird should be vaccinated for this add color dye to water
  • Color on beak will determine that those bird drink water having vaccine.

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