The 2022 Pakistan floods triggered unprecedented damage to livestock, agriculture crops, and infrastructure.

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Climate change and natural disasters pose a serious threat to Pakistan. For years, the nation has been plagued by disasters like earthquakes, typhoons, floods and drought, which frequently damage the pillars upon which the lives of countless families were built.

Disruption of the seasonal march of the monsoon (number of rainy days) caused by a changing climate has posed a significant threat or damage in the form of droughts and floods to the sustainability of crop production.

Nationally, Pakistan’s Sindh Province accounts for 31% of the sugarcane production, 23% of the cotton production, and 42% of the rice production.

The 2022 Pakistan floods triggered unprecedented damage to livestock, agriculture crops, and infrastructure such as grain storage facilities holding millions of tons of grain, increasing the possibility of a countrywide food security scenario.

The floods hit before the harvesting stage of major crops, including sugarcane, rice, and cotton.

CropsProduction LossEconomic Loss
Sugarcane10.5 million tonsUSD 273 million
Rice1.9 million tonsUSD 543 million
Cotton3.1 million balesUSD 485 million

In addition, three important vegetable crops—chilli, onion, and tomato—face a loss of USD 374 million in the affected areas.

Adaptations to flooded conditions:

Precision agriculture should be used to solve these issues. An approach to thinking about how to increase production and make better use of already available resources is called precision agriculture. It frequently uses tools like GPS, satellite positioning systems, remote sensing, AWD, NDVI, and other technologies.

Planting trees and keeping the ground covered in upland locations The soil is protected from erosion when nearby trees, shrubs, and crop residue are left on the ground, and the year-round addition of growing plants can decrease water runoff and enhance infiltration. The reduction of soil crusting or sealing is made possible by adding organic cover and leaving residue in the soil. It can also increase the soil’s ability to retain water.

Cultivate crop varieties that can withstand flooding. The majority of root vegetables are flood resistant by nature. Additionally, cultivars of crops like wheat and rice are being created that are more flood resistant.

The most frequently used planned solution to lower the risk of flooding on agricultural land is an effective drainage system. A system like this comprises preserving waterways, enhancing drainage, and getting rid of sediment that builds up over time. Debris must also be removed from channels, gutters, and trash screens to maintain proper drainage. Although regular drainage system maintenance might get tiresome, it is a critical component of well-drained and managed landscapes.

Early maturing crop varieties are favorable because they complete their life cycles more quickly. As a result, preventing the flooding season is easy. They can either be planted after the flooding season or will probably be ready earlier.

Building floating gardens is a viable option for those who live in frequently flooded locations (such as massive portions of Bangladesh) and are unable to grow crops due to a lack of suitable land or land that frequently has floodwaters. Vegetables can be cultivated in floating gardens that are constructed using underwater weeds as a base.

These are all the adaptation options for flood-affected areas. To determine the ideal planting times, try to gather information on risk and weather forecasting.