Effects Of Maize & Oat Bran Supplementation And Sensorial Properties Of Bread Introduction Cereal Is A Staple Food And Major Nutrition Source.

Effects Of Maize And Oat Bran Supplementation And Sensorial Properties Of Bread Introduction Cereal Is A Staple Food And Major Nutrition Source Throughout The World. Cereal foods are providing carbohydrates, protein, dietary fibers and vitamins, that’s why these are important components of the daily diet (Poutanen, Sozer, & Della Valle, 2014). Cereal bran is a nutritional storehouse of the grains. Cereal brans can be used as food ingredients with no supplementary costs in baked products as natural sources of fibers to increase the dietary content of foods.(Heinio et al. 2016).

Oat, termed as Avena Sativa, belongs to the Poaceae family of monocotyledons. Oat bran, a by-product of oat grain processing, is a good source of soluble fibers: b-glucans that are linked to the reduction of cholesterol and to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.The composition of oat bran is often presented in the literature in a domain of values: 15%-18% protein, 10%-50% starch and sugars, 5%-10% fat, 10%-40% total dietary fibers, and 5%-20% b-glucan (Sontag-Strohm et al., 2008; Dhinda et al., 2012). Maize is a hot climate crop Maize Zea mays subsp. Mays from Spanish: maíz after Taino: mahiz), also known as corn .Maize kernel is nutritive and also edible part of the plant.

The maize kernel is formed from four leading structures, the bran , endosperm, germ and tip cap, making up 83% 11%, 5%[germ], and 1% [tip cap] of the maize kernel (Eckhoff, 2010).In order to produce good-quality gluten-free bread, a suitable replacer commonly needs to be added to the bread formulation to mimic its functional properties (Ziobro, Korus, Witczak, & Juszczak, 2012). Although the total dietary fiber of oat bran is less than that of some other dietary fiber sources, the ratio of soluble dietary fiber is higher than in many of the other cereal brans (Anil, 2012).Sabanis et al. (2009) reported that maize and oat brans can be added to bread with positive influence on its nutritional and sensory properties.

The major objectives of present research was to characterized the cereal bran maize and oat brans components and observe the effect of cereal brans (maize and oat) on physical and sensorial characterization of bread.

Objectives: The major objectives of present research project are as under;

To characterized the cereal bran maize and oat brans To Characterize the maize and oat bran components

To observe the effect of cereal brans (maize and oat) on physical and sensorial characterization of breadMaize and OatCorn is also recognized as Maize, produced a capsule, known as caryopsis which is also called as corn kernel (Delcour & Hoseney, 2010). Those corn kernels are composed of starch 60 to 75 %, non-starch polysaccharides 3 to 8 % and protein 10 to 15 % (Luc Saulnier et al., 2007). Maize is chief yielding cereal harvest within the world, was of substantial rank for countries similar to Pakistan, where supply from a quickly growing inhabitants has previously out stripped the accessible food, feed and fodder supplies.

In the new world, maize kernel is prime and most important staple cereal food product (S. Memon et al., 2012)..Maize is a hot climate crop and it cultivates from sea level to altitude of 2800 meters. It can be grownup under diverse climatic environments also. It’s grown-up in many locations of the country during the year. Kharif term is the foremost growing period (Ullah, Ali, & Farooqi, 2010). Corn plant requires significant humidity and warmness from germination to flowering. 21°C is most appropriate temperature for germination and 32°C is suitable for growth (Arain, 2013). Oat is a minor cereal that is widely used in livestock feed, human food or as well use as industrial applications. Simultaneously, oat cultivation grew with wheat and barley and became a major rotational crop as with barley and wheat, Oats are a cold weather crop, and rank sixth in world cereal production. Oat is produced around the world, but much of its production is in North America, Europe, and Asia. Oat is grownup mainly in the countries of the Europe and mainly United States of America Russia and Canada. (FAOSTAT, 2013).

Nutritional composition of maize and oatMaize kernel is nutritive and edible portion of the plant. Maize kernel composition of per 100 g is presented in above. Maize kernel also contains water soluble vitamins, Tocopherol, Phylloquinone. Se, N-p-coumaryl tryptamine, N-ferrulyl tryptamine and folic acid. Potassium is a main nutrient existing, that’s a good consequence as a result of average human diet deficient (Kumar & Jhariya, 2013).One hundred gram of fresh kernel includes 370 calories energy, 9.3g protein; 4.4g fat, 75.2g carbohydrate, 2.2g fiber, 1.5g ash, 140mg vitamins, 9mg calcium, 290mg, phosphorus, 2.5mg iron and 10.6 per cent water (Arain, 2013).Corn is principally a carbohydrate plant, and hence it is the chief origin of energy in human and animal nutrition (Pajic & Polje, 2007).

Corn is an essential origin of numerous phytochemicals that play a significant role in human health (Kopsell et al., 2009). Maize is an essential source of various major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols (Lopez-Martinez et al., 2009). Maize comprises several bioactive components, like tocopherols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and phenolic compounds that have various diseases preventing and health promoting properties (Prasanna et al., 2001). The composition of the maize kernel, as is the case with other cereals, varies depending on cultural practices, variety used and soil type, weather conditions and other factors (Taboada‐Gaytan, Pollak, Johnson, Fox, & Montgomery, 2010). Maize is nutritionally higher to most other different cereals in many ways, excepting in protein value. Maize relates very well in nutritive value with wheat and rice. It is superior in fiber, fat and iron content (Paliwal et al., 2000).

Maize play main role in nutrition of Pakistani people. It can act as the alternate food source when the conventional cereal grains are deficient i.e. wheat and rice (Jabran et al., 2007).Conclusion Results of current research were as follows, total dietary fiber content was in the range of 46.64-49.8% for maize bran and 27.02-29.24% in oat bran. The mineral content in maize bran was in the range of 41-42 ca/unit/100g while in oat bran it was in the range of 42.5- 42.08 ca/unit/100g. Cellulose content in both varieties ranged from 13.78-14.02 & 14.22- 14.38%. Moreover, adding cereal brans maize and oat bran in bread formulation resulted in significant increase in nutritional composition and texture of the product.