Cockroaches are undesirable pests in households and buildings. During night, they visit for food in food storage areas, kitchens, and other severe places. They are called pest due to their dirty habits and unpleasant smell. They play a vital role as a carrier of various intestinal diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid and dysentery. They are very sensitive to allergic people. Some species are very dangerous for human beings.


Life cycle:

There are three development stages of cockroaches; egg, nymph and adult. Female lays eggs in cluster which is covered by bean shaped egg case. A German cockroach carry the Ootheca for a few weeks attached to her body. Mostly transmit the oothecal within one or two days.

Ootheca is very important for indication of species. Eggs hatch in 1-3 months. The nymphs are wingless, few millimeter long and white on hatching and grow darken in few hours.

They are fully mature in few months to more than one year, grow in stages by repeatedly shedding the cuticle or skin. They are fully grown after several months to more than a year, depending on the species .The adults contains one leathery pair which is folded a membranous pair. 


They are closely associated with human beings and live in tropical,temperate  and in various parts of buildings where humidity ,moisture and spoiled food found in abundance.

They live in clusters or clutches.They are active at night but during day they goes inside the cracks, crevices, furniture basements,bathrooms and animal houses. They consume various variety of food. They like sugary and starchy materials.


Previous scientific research have been proved that some species migrates during overcrowding. They migrate into new habitats through flying and crawling.


They are very important to spread ruin food,filth and book bindings. They eject their partially digested food at intervals and drop feces. They cause bad smell in food and other commodities.


They have close association with humans and move freely in buildings.They are responsible to spread germs that cause various diseases.Including; Diarrhoea, Plague, Dysentery, Typhoid Fever,   Cholera, Leprosy and some viral diseases.

Management Strategies:

Control of cockroaches is very effective in temperate zone than humid and warm place.Infestation can be perceived by behind boxes, furniture and other hidden places.They are easily noticed in night time because at night they are very active.

  • Water must remove from sinks and other water standing places.
  • Cover the containers tightly in food storage areas
  • Repair the leakage and crevices to prevent the roaches
  • Tree holes should be filled by cement to reduce the prime harbor age area
  • Pruning, thinning and trimming of various ornamental plants and shrubs should be away from the house because these are favorite places for breeding of cockroaches
  • We should use different bio pesticides and repellents.

This article is collectively authored by Umar Niaz1, Burhan Ahmad2, Department of Entomology University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.