G1 Garlic: A High-Yielding Variety Revolutionizing Garlic Farming

G1 garlic, scientifically known as Allium sativum, is indeed a remarkable natural wonder with its multifaceted qualities.

G1 garlic, scientifically known as Allium sativum, is indeed a remarkable natural wonder with its multifaceted qualities. It requires a temperature minimum of 10 to 15, an average of 22 to 28, and a maximum of 30 to 35 degrees Celsius.

It grows better in cold and dry climates. In October, sowing garlic occurs in the middle of January, when bulb formation occurs. That’s why it requires more light and a semi-warm and dry climate. Also, the damp weather in February and March is unpleasant for it.

Yield issues:

Decreased plant count, inadequate cultivation techniques, diseases affecting plants, and imbalanced use of fertilisers—these are the main issues for reducing garlic yield. The biggest producer of garlic in the world is China, which produces about 200 monds per acre, and in Pakistan, the average yield is 75 monds per acre, but now history is going to change due to the G1 variety of NARC.

Food and medicinal benefits:

  • From a medical perspective, its effect is categorised as “warm and dry.”.
  • It contains calcium and magnesium.
  • It also controls the blood cholesterol level and reduces the risk of heart disease.

Fertiliser application:-

To obtain a good garlic harvest, the use of chemical fertilisers is crucial. Therefore, it is essential to analyse the soil for a balanced and proportional application of fertilizers. Generally, garlic requires 80 kilogrammes of nitrogen, 46 kilogrammes of phosphorus, and 25 kilogrammes of potassium per acre. Before planting the garlic cloves, thoroughly mix all the phosphorus, i.e., 2 sacks of DAP and one each of urea and sulphate of potash, in the soil after ploughing.

The garlic crop planted in mid-October should be watered with one sack of urea per acre along with water, about 60 days after planting, before the middle of December (before the severe cold). To get a better garlic yield, apply the following amount 120 days later (at the end of January and the start of February, after a severe cold) by analysing the condition of the crop: one sack of ammonium nitrate or one sack of calcium ammonium phosphate.

In spite of it, in February or March, 5 kg of humic acid with 1-2kg of sulphur or 2-3kg of zinc sulphate can be used to enhance the yielding capacity of garlic crops.

Some common diseases and insects:

Thrips are the common insects that attack garlic; in diseases, white tip blight of garlic, purple blotch, rust, and downy mildew are common.

NARC G1 garlic is a revolution in the field of agriculture. It was introduced by NARC Islamabad, and its creator is agriculture scientist Sitar-e-Imtiaz Dr.Hamayun; unfortunately, he passed away in 2019 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is an eight-month-long crop. It is a high-yielding, highly nutritive, and fertiliser-responsive variety. It allows farmers to excel in no time.

Characteristics and benefits of G1 garlic: –

High yield potential:The yield of local varieties of garlic is less than the yield of the NARC G1 variety due to these reasons: –

1. One bulb of the local variety of garlic weighs 30 to 50 grammes; on the other hand, one bulb of the NARC G1 variety weighs 250 to 500+ grammes.

2. The yield of the local variety is 70 to 80 monds per acre. On the contrary, the yield of the G1 variety is 250 to 350 monds per acre.

Shelf life:

The NARC G1 variety has a lot longer shelf life than the local varieties of garlic. It is beneficial for drying purposes and storage in the form of seeds. In stores, each bunch of bulbs hagged till it dried.

Cultivation practices and the whole procedure of the G1 variety from sowing to harvesting:

First of all, soak it in water and treat it with gibberellic acid and thiosulfate methyl. Soaking in water is very useful in reducing the germination period.

Crop duration and planting techniques:

Garlic is an eight-month-long crop. For optimal growth, garlic should be planted in raised beds or rows with a distance of 15 inches between each row. This spacing allows enough room for the garlic bulbs to develop without crowding each other and in a zigzag pattern with a 7-inch seed-to-seed distance.

When planting garlic cloves in each row, they should be spaced in a zigzag or staggered pattern. This zigzag arrangement helps maximise the use of space and ensures that the garlic bulbs have enough room to grow. The distance between individual cloves, or “seed-to-seed distance,” should be 7 inches. This spacing ensures that the garlic plants have sufficient space to develop and produce healthy bulbs.

How much seed is required for sowing and what yield is obtained?

To obtain 700kg of dry G1 seed, 70 to 80 kg of seed are sown in each kanal.

On average, one acre requires 1200 kg of seed to sow, and it yields about 12 tonnes of G1 garlic.

Integrated nutrient management (INM) practices: –

It involves the integration of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients, along with other management practices, to improve nutrient efficiency, soil health, and crop productivity. INM aims to provide plants with a balanced supply of essential nutrients while minimising environmental impacts.

Some farmers use animal dung as fertiliser in NARC G1 sowing, but in spite of it, the crop is very healthy and shiny.

Some use chemical fertiliser, and fermenting it for 5 days reduces the cost of fertiliser by about 50% and increases the efficiency of fertiliser.

What is fertiliser fermentation?

Fertiliser fermentation refers to the process of converting organic materials into a nutrient-rich liquid or solid fertiliser through microbial action. This fermentation process helps to break down the organic matter and release nutrients in a form that can be readily taken up by plants.

Which technique is best for sowing (drip irrigation or flood irrigation)?

Flood Irrigation:-

Water Requirement:

It requires a substantial amount of water, with 100,000 litres per acre needed. This method involves flooding the entire field, which can lead to water waste.


It is less water-efficient compared to drip irrigation. It can result in excess water runoff and evaporation, potentially leading to water resource depletion.

Fertiliser Transport:

Flood irrigation may not be as efficient in transporting fertilizers. It can lead to uneven distribution and potential nutrient loss due to water runoff.

Drip Irrigation:-

Water Requirement:

It is significantly more water-efficient, requiring only 20,000 litres per acre. It delivers water directly to the roots of plants, reducing water waste.


It is highly water-efficient. It minimises water runoff and evaporation, making it a sustainable choice, especially in water-scarce regions.

Fertiliser Transport:

It enhances fertiliser transport. It delivers nutrients directly to the root zone, ensuring efficient uptake by plants and reducing the risk of nutrient loss.

Mulching is necessary to get a high yield of G1 garlic in the field; it prevents the crop from rottening and overdrying.

Future prospects and challenges:

Estimating G1 garlic prices:

Currently, the market value of G1 garlic is remarkable, with prices reaching Rs. 2,500 per kilogram. This high price point is reflective of the demand and premium quality associated with this high-yield variety. By taking advantage of this market value, farmers can calculate the potential revenue from their G1 garlic.

Revenue Calculation:

Considering an average yield of 10,000 kilogrammes per acre, let’s explore the revenue estimation:

10,000 kg × Rs. 2,500 = Rs. 2.5 crore

This calculation demonstrates the significant revenue potential that G1 garlic farming holds. With an impressive return on investment, farmers stand to benefit greatly from the cultivation and sale of G1 garlic.

Future Market Dynamics:

While the current market demand for G1 garlic is thriving, it’s essential to consider the future trajectory and potential shifts in market dynamics. As time progresses, it is plausible that the demand for G1 garlic may gradually reduce, leading to a normalisation of prices. In such a scenario, G1 garlic can be sold at prices similar to those of local garlic.

For instance, if we estimate a future price of Rs. 300 per kilogramme for G1 garlic, the revenue calculation would be as follows:

10,000 kg × Rs. 300 = Rs. 30 lacs

Even with this conservative estimation, the revenue generated from G1 garlic farming would still far surpass the earnings from local garlic varieties.

G1 garlic is in high demand for its superior quality and flavor. Export destinations include the U.S., Europe, and Asian markets. Meeting stringent quality standards is essential for successful exports. G1 garlic exports contribute significantly to the local economy of Pakistan.


In conclusion, the introduction of G1 garlic, Allium sativum, has not only boosted agricultural yield but has also transformed farming practices. Its higher productivity, enhanced water and fertiliser efficiency, and excellent shelf life make it a valuable asset for farmers.

With careful planning and continued research, the future of G1 garlic holds great promise for the agricultural industry, ensuring sustainable productivity and economic growth.