Postharvest Diseases; A Hazard for Mango Quality

Mangoes are high in vitamins (A, C, E, and K), minerals, and antioxidants, making them an excellent addition to a balanced diet.

In Pakistan, the mango is referred to as the “king of fruits” and has great cultural and commercial value. Post-harvest infections, however, are posing a growing danger to the quality of this highly valued fruit. The impact of various illnesses on mangoes in Pakistan is examined in this article, which also provides information on the present situation, contributing causes, and prevalence of these diseases. In examining preventive strategies to preserve the quality of mangoes, the study delves into agricultural practices as well as technological interventions.

The presentation of the results sheds light on the post-harvest disease situation as well as the efficacy of these procedures. The conclusion highlights the critical need to solve post-harvest difficulties to ensure the sustained quality of this regal fruit, summarises major results, and makes recommendations for maintaining the mango sector in Pakistan.

Mango, dubbed the “King of Fruits,” has a particular position in Pakistan’s cultural tapestry. Aside from its wonderful flavour, this tropical fruit is vital to the country’s economy, with Pakistan being one of the world’s major growers and exporters. The plantations that sprawl across the terrain attest to the agricultural wealth and importance of mangoes in the daily lives of Pakistanis.

Mangoes are used in salads, smoothies, juices, jams, pickles, sweets (such as mango ice cream and pudding), and as a topping for yoghurt. Its pulp or juice is used to make drinks like juices, nectars, and alcoholic beverages such as cocktails and liqueurs.

Popular snacks include dried mango slices or chunks. Mango extracts or flavourings are also used in mango-flavoured sweets, chocolates, and pastries. Mangoes are grown commercially and contribute considerably to the agricultural economy.

Mango cultivars grown in Pakistan include “Sindhri, Chaunsa, Anwar Ratol, and Langra,” which are marketed internationally. Mango leaves, bark, and peels may be composted to make organic fertiliser, which can be used to help with agricultural growth. Because of their moisturising and rejuvenating characteristics, mango butter and oil obtained from mango seeds are used in skincare products such as lotions, creams, and soaps. Mango extracts are used to nourish and strengthen hair in shampoos, conditioners, and hair treatments.

Mangoes are high in vitamins (A, C, E, and K), minerals, and antioxidants, making them an excellent addition to a balanced diet. Mangoes and their components (leaves, bark, and fruit) are used to cure diarrhoea, dysentery, stomach difficulties, and respiratory problems in various traditional medical practices. Because of their antioxidant content, mangoes are thought to boost skin health, perhaps lowering inflammation and relieving skin problems.

Mango leaves have traditionally been used to make natural colours for textiles. Mango wood is used as a replacement for other hardwoods in furniture manufacturing in some areas. Mangoes are not only a tasty fruit, but they also have value in a variety of industries, making them an important element of agriculture, industry, and health practices in Pakistan and throughout the world.

The quality of the fruit that the mango business produces has a direct impact on its success. Pakistani mangoes are widely sought-after in worldwide markets due to their superior flavour and texture, which not only delight local palates but also elevate their status.

Mango exports, worth USD $164,719, have a large economic influence on the country and contribute considerably to its earnings. Therefore, preserving and improving mango quality is not just an agricultural issue but also a vital economic necessity for Pakistan.

Pakistani mango quality is being threatened by post-harvest illnesses. Powdery mildew, stem end rot, and anthracnose are common offenders. These illnesses cause spoilage, which lowers the fruit’s aesthetic appeal and flavor. They are frequently made worse by storage and transit. Developing effective preventative interventions requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of these illnesses.

The occurrence of post-harvest illnesses is influenced by a number of variables. Crucial roles are played by environmental factors, poor handling techniques, and inadequate storage facilities. Changes in temperature and humidity, in particular, might lead to favourable circumstances for the development of illness.

Furthermore, inexperienced handling during harvesting and transportation may result in lesions that serve as ports of entry for viruses. The first stages in reducing post-harvest illnesses are identifying and resolving these contributory variables.

Post-harvest illnesses are addressed with a multifaceted strategy. Implementing better farming techniques, such as clean-up and pruning, can lower the frequency of disease in orchards. Fungicide sprays and hot water treatment are two post-harvest measures that show promise in reducing the spread of illness during transit and storage.

Technological advancements in storage and packaging also help to maintain the quality of mangos. Nevertheless, there is still a barrier to the general implementation of these preventative measures, which calls for industry cooperation. Examining these aspects of post-harvest illnesses in Pakistani mangoes makes it clear that preserving the integrity of this beloved fruit requires a comprehensive approach that combines agricultural best practices with technological innovations.

Recent data analysis indicates that Pakistani mangoes have an alarmingly high incidence of post-harvest illnesses. The general quality of harvested fruit has been seen to be significantly impacted by the occurrences of anthracnose, stem end rot, and powdery mildew. The information emphasises how urgently these problems must be resolved if Pakistani mangoes are to continue to be competitive in the market.

The effectiveness of preventative measures that have been put in place varies. Improved agricultural techniques have been shown to reduce disease rates in orchards, demonstrating the value of preventative actions throughout the production phase.

Post-harvest treatments should be used more widely, as some examples suggest, while storage and transportation still present difficulties. To properly scale up these preventive measures, cooperation between researchers, farmers, and industry partners is essential.

In conclusion, chronic post-harvest illnesses pose a danger to the quality of Pakistani mangoes, the pinnacle of the nation’s agricultural excellence. The information provided emphasises the necessity of an all-encompassing plan to address these issues.

Important efforts include promoting industry-wide collaboration, putting an emphasis on improving farming methods, and funding research for novel post-harvest treatments.

Maintaining the quality of Pakistani mangoes is essential for the industry’s financial survival as well as for maintaining the country’s standing as a leading supplier of mangoes worldwide. The mango industry’s ability to withstand these difficulties in the future depends on our shared will to maintain the “king of fruits”‘ superiority in Pakistan.

This article is jointly authored by Muhammad Shoaib from the Dept. of Plant Pathology, UAF, and Muhammad Majid Islam from the Dept. of Agronomy, UAF.