Climate Change: A Long-Term Fluctuation in Weather Patterns

Climate change is a long-term fluctuation in weather patterns. It has been a continuous issue for some decades and a gradual process.

Climate Change: A Long-Term Fluctuation in Weather Patterns

Climate change is a long-term fluctuation in weather patterns. It has been a continuous issue for some decades and a gradual process. The five major components of the climate system are the atmosphere, hydrosphere, land surface, cryosphere, and biosphere.

Countries on the Asia continent faced great effects of CC in 2000–2008. South Asia will be deprived of its own crop productivity in wheat at 50%, rice at 17%, and maize at 6% in near 2050.

The contribution of agriculture is 47% for methane gas emissions and 58% for oxides of nitrogen. Climate change causes problems of soil erosion, aridity, acidity, and waterlogging. 2.5–2.8°C increase in temperature till 2050 and 3.9–4.4°C increase in temperature till 2080s are predicted.

It is the duty of the government to make people aware of the issues related to climate change, raise awareness for the sustainable development of the agriculture system, and also provide guidelines to the farmers through the extension office for sustainable use of their resources to increase crop yield and productivity.

We know that Pakistan is considered an agriculture-dependent country; about 47% of its population is directly associated with the agriculture sector. In 2021, agriculture’s role in contributing to the GDP of Pakistan was above 22 percent (Aaron O’Neill, 2023) and 4.18 percent in 2023.

In simple words, climate change is a long-term change in weather patterns. Anthropogenic interventions cause the induction of climate change, which results in global warming. The main driver of climate change is fossil fuel burning by human activities since the 1800s.

In the scenario of climate change, long-term fluctuations in weather patterns have been predicted that the temperature will rise by three degrees in 2040 and may lead to six degrees at the end of the present century. Rains will drastically lessen but have a higher intensity. There is also a prediction of droughts and floods that will cover South Asia.

It is also observed that weather patterns are more intense every year. The burning of fossil fuels caused the production of a great deal of greenhouse gases, the first of which was the hydrocarbon CH4 and carbon dioxide. These gases cover the earth’s surface like a blanket and trap the light from the sun, which results in the rising temperature of the earth’s crust.

Clearance of land and cutting of forests on a large scale allow the release of a huge amount of methane gas into the environment, which pollutes the environment and surroundings and also disturbs the cropping pattern of crops or vegetation. The previous ten-year period was recorded as the warmest temperature.

Major contributors to climate change:

The greenhouse gas emissions that result in the long-term fluctuation in weather patterns, climate change, and global warming are produced all over the world, but some countries are mainly involved in climate change induction, as described below:
China, India, the United States of America, the European Union, Indonesia, the Russian Federation, and Brazil

Climate Change’s Impacts on Agriculture:

  • Water scarcity results in changing cropping patterns and crop rotation.
  • Reduced yield of different types of crops like maize, barley, wheat, cotton, etc.
  • 15-20% yield reduction of major crops is observed in Pakistan, especially in southern areas.
  • Sometimes sudden fluctuation occurs due to climate change, and it limits the yield by shrinking the seed produced in spikes.
  • A decreased population of livestock and the stress of milk, meat, and poultry result in food insecurity.
  • Greenlands are under stress due to a water shortage, and this results in the clearance of land by the human population as well. Thus, cultivated areas are continuously decreasing. Forest land is also very scarce in our country (less than 5%).
  • Extremely increased levels of carbon dioxide cause suffocation that results in different diseases for animals as well as humans. Plant growth is also reduced due to photorespiration at high levels of carbon dioxide.
  • Increased floods cause a great loss of animal biodiversity as well as crop biodiversity. It also causes soil problems for crop cultivation as the proportion of soil is disturbed when sandy soil is added to the cultivated land.
  • The top fertile layer is mostly runoff due to flooding, thus causing problems for crop production.
    It causes many plant diseases and weed propagation that ultimately reduce plant and crop yield.
  • During flooding, many weed seeds are dispersed through the water. This water sometimes contains many harmful microorganisms and different types of plant pathogens. Thus, there is an increase in the cost of crop production by spending a large amount on pesticides and fungicide medicines.
  • Pakistan gets a great advantage from exporting valuable fruits, vegetables, and horticultural products. When they are not in sufficient amounts, it will be a leading cause of food security, and exports will also be affected.
  • The economy of farm communities will be affected, and small landholding farmers will be deprived of food. Then it will result in an increased percentage of uneducated people.
  • Rice is already cultivated in fewer areas in Pakistan, and it requires more water for good productivity.

Is Pakistan’s condition alarming?

The impacts of climate change on South Asia are alarming.

IFPRI stated that “South Asia will be severely effected by this issue. At almost reaching the era of 2050, it will lose its 50% wheat production”.

Pakistan is about 28th among those that are most affected by climate change. Pakistan is included in the top 10 countries that are adversely disturbed by climate change. IFPRI: The International Food Policy Research Institute

Adaptation required for Pakistan:

Such adaptations are required that will stabilise the agriculture growth rate to 7.5%, which is a 5 percent increase from the growth rate of the population, i.e., 2.5%.

  • Fundraising in the research and development sector is needed to mitigate the stresses.
  • Advanced technology is required that will predict precipitation, floods, storms, hailstorms, droughts, etc.
  • By using modern biotechnology, we need to breed different species of livestock and also prepare varieties that are resistant to extreme drought and waterlogged conditions.
  • Offer training and capacity-building for farmers in 10 agro-ecological zones of Pakistan.
  • Funds for forests and tree management. Ensure that wildlife safety rules are followed for the conservation of biodiversity in different ecological zones.
  • Use renewable energy sources like wind and light coming from the sun instead of using fossil fuels to minimise carbon emissions.
  • Use a source of public transport instead of a personal source to reduce the emission of poisonous gases into the environment.
  • Making policies for the emissions of greenhouse gases and warning industrial owners to change the poisonous gases into less toxic forms before releasing them into the open environment.


It is our first duty to manage all the resources efficiently in such a way that they pollute the environment the least. We should use conservation technologies and renewable energy resources to decrease the effects of climate change.

Shifting of own resources for travel by public transport to reduce emissions of harmful gases. The forest area should be increased from 4.5% to almost 25% for the sustainable development of the country. Conserve the animal biodiversity and their habitats.

A dam should be formed for water storage in order to reduce the loss caused by flooding. By following the above parameters, we can achieve sustainable development and mitigate the adverse effects of climate change.