Every problem Has Solution, Including Problem Of Climate Change

“Every problem has a solution. The problem is to find the solution to the problem.” (Pierre Fillion).

Every problem Has Solution, Including Problem Of Climate Change

“Every problem has a solution. The problem is to find the solution to the problem.” (Pierre Fillion). The same strategy needs to be followed when we talk about solving the most pressing problem in the world, i.e., climate change.

There are many possible solutions to this problem of climate change, such as implementing and enforcing laws, finding alternatives, proving incentives, and raising awareness among the general public.

Considering the fact that the current age is the age of technology, in my opinion, the best possible solution to this problem is incorporating technology as a part of the solutions to climate change.

This is why the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework to Combat Climate Change) and Kyoto Protocol also place emphasis on the importance of climate technology, as can be seen in Article 4, Paragraphs 1 and 5 of the convention and Article 10 of the protocol.

In this article, we shall discuss the recent technologies used in combating climate change due to the 3 main sectors (industry, agriculture, and energy) that are responsible for about 49%, 40%, and 45% of the emissions, respectively, as stated in the National Climate Change Policy of Pakistan 2021.

The energy sector is one of the major sectors contributing to the changing climate. The most appropriate technology-based solution for this sector is the use of “renewable energy” for cleaner energy generation.

Some common forms of renewable energy include solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass energy. Hydroelectric power generation is already being used in some places in Pakistan, but the potential is more for solar and wind energy due to the longer sunshine hours (3000 to 3300 hours per year) and coastline (1365km).

According to research, for every kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity generated by a residential solar system, approximately 0.36 kilogrammes of CO2 are eliminated from the atmosphere, whereas wind energy helps avoid 329 million metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

According to the Alternate Energy Development Board, at present, a total of six solar PV power projects with a cumulative capacity of 430 MW and over 30 wind farms contributing to 6% of the national energy are working in Pakistan. The World Bank further states that the right changes could increase solar and wind usage in the country by up to 30% by 2030.

Another sector that majorly contributes to the changing climate is the industrial sector. One of the major technologies that can be used is carbon capture and storage (CCS), which involves the capture and transportation of CO2 emissions, primarily from the steel and cement industries, via ship or pipeline into deep geological formations by the use of green carbon capture solvents such as diluted eutectic solvents.

According to the Centre for Climate and Energy Solutions, carbon capture can achieve 14% of the global greenhouse gas emissions reductions needed by 2050 by removing about 90% of CO2 from industries.

Another technology used to reduce emissions from the cement and concrete industries is the use of Zero Carbon Cement, which is derived from microalgae and reduces CO2 emissions by injecting CO2 captured during cement production to accelerate the curing process and “lock in” CO2 in the end product.

Lastly, the major sector contributing to emissions is the agriculture sector. One of the techniques that can be used to reduce emissions is green vertical farming, which involves growing crops or vegetables in the form of various stacked layers under controlled conditions.

According to a study, this can potentially emit 70% less CO2 compared to open field agriculture, with additional benefits of 95% less land used and 80 to 90% less water use, along with a reduction in emissions during transportation as well.

In Pakistan, this technique is being practiced in Lahore and Islamabad. Another most recent technology is drone and AI surveying, which provides an off-field visit of the entire field, thereby reducing emissions due to transportation and helping in precision farming.

According to an Agricultural Drone Industry Insight Report, it can reduce 5.11 kg of CO2 per hectare. In 2022, agricultural technology company Syngenta Pakistan used drones to spray pesticides on 5,000 acres of farmland, being the first to do so. In addition to this, Pakistan’s Ministry of Science and Technology signed an agreement to produce drones for dealing with locusts.

All in all, we can clearly say that technology plays a major role in combating climate change, be it artificial intelligence, new inventions, or biotechnological innovations. Furthermore, when put together in a state, it can help combat climate change and reduce it. Hence, by including all of the above-mentioned modern technological methods, we can easily achieve our target of reducing our emissions by 50% by the end of 2030.

This article is jointly authored by Syeda Noveera Qambar and Ms. Shehnaz Zakia.