Exploring Linseed Crop For Agriculture, Nutrition And Industry

The goal of researching linseed, also known as flaxseed, is to comprehend its importance in agriculture, nutrition, and industry.

Exploring Linseed Crop For Agriculture, Nutrition And Industry

The goal of researching linseed, also known as flaxseed, is to comprehend its importance in agriculture, nutrition, and industry. Since it has so many uses and has been grown for thousands of years, linseed is a versatile crop that attracts interest from a wide range of industries.

Scope Of Study

Agricultural significance:

Understanding linseed as a crop, its cultivation methods, agronomic needs, and possible advantages for farmers and the agricultural sector are of agricultural relevance.

Nutritional value:

Exploring the nutritional value of linseed crop, including its high level of protein, dietary fibre, vitamins, and minerals, as well as its possible health advantages when included in the diets of people and animals.

Industrial applications:

Linseed’s usage in the manufacture of linseed oil, which is used in paints, varnishes, and other goods, is one example of its industrial uses that have been studied.

Health benefits:

Researching linseed’s possible health advantages, including its function in heart health, digestion, and potential anti-inflammatory effects.

Environmental impact:

Analysing the potential for linseed as a sustainable crop and its effects on the environment.

Scientifically named Linum usitatissimum, linseed is a very important crop with a long history of cultivation. It belongs to the Linaceae family and is cultivated for both its fibre and seeds. Linseed has been used for a variety of things, including food, feed, and industrial applications.

The plant itself is an annual herb that normally grows between 30 and 90 centimetres tall, has thin stems, and has tiny, light blue flowers. Tiny, glossy, flat seeds, sometimes known as flaxseeds, are present in the linseed plant’s fruit.

Linseed crop has an outstanding nutritional profile since it is a great source of important fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid. Furthermore, linseed has dietary fibre.

Overview of the challenges posed by drought, heat, cold, and salinity stresses in linseed cultivation

Drought stress

Drought stress adversely affects flax crops by reducing plant growth, leaf area, and photosynthesis and water use efficiency. This can lead to reduced seed germination, poor flowering and reduced seed yield.

Drought-induced oxidative stress and cell damage have also been observed in linseed plants exposed to water deficit conditions (Sairam et al., 2018). Strategies to mitigate drought stress in flaxseed include the use of drought-tolerant cultivars, optimization of irrigation methods, and exogenous applications of osmoprotectants and plant growth regulators (Farooq et al., 2020).

Heat stress

High temperatures during the reproductive phase of flaxseed growth can cause significant reductions in yield and seed quality. Heat stress affects pollen viability, disrupts flower development, and causes premature senescence, leading to reduced seed set and yield (Haque et al., 2020).

Several studies indicate the importance of heat stress tolerance in flaxseed breeding programs and the need to identify heat-tolerant genotypes using physiological and molecular traits (Akbari et al., 2020).

Cold stress

Flax seed crops are sensitive to cold stress at the germination, seedling and flowering stages. Exposure to low temperatures can slow down germination, stunt growth, and reduce plant vigour.

Cold stress can also induce chilling, disrupt membrane integrity, and impair photosynthetic efficiency in flaxseed plants (Prasad et al., 2020). Breeding for cold tolerance and adopting cultural practices such as adjusting planting dates and using cover crops can help mitigate the adverse effects of cold stress (Ashraf et al., 2021).

Salinity stress

Salinity stress, caused by high salt content in the soil or saltwater irrigation, negatively affects the growth and yield of flax. Salinity reduces water uptake, disrupts ion balance, and induces oxidative stress in linseed plants (Rasool et al., 2018).

Several strategies, including the use of salt-tolerant cultivars, soil amendment, and management practices such as controlled irrigation and drainage, can help mitigate the negative effects of salinity stress in flaxseed production (Munns et al., 2020).

Identification of Stress-Tolerant Genotypes

The study of the genetic basis of stress tolerance allows the identification of flaxseed genotypes that possess desirable traits for withstanding certain stresses.

Genetic studies such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping help identify genomic regions associated with stress tolerance traits. This information helps breeders in the selection and development of linseed crop varieties with increased stress resistance (Braich et al., 2020)

Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS):

Knowledge of the genetic basis of stress tolerance facilitates the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in flaxseed breeding programs.

MAS allows breeders to select plants with specific stress tolerance traits based on the presence of molecular markers associated with those traits. This approach accelerates the selection process, allowing early detection of stress-resistant genotypes (Ahmed et al., 2021).

Understanding Molecular Mechanisms:

Studying the genetic basis of stress resistance allows us to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress response and adaptation of flaxseed.

This helps to unravel the pathways and genes involved in stress signaling, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defence and other physiological processes related to stress resistance. This knowledge helps breeders to develop targeted strategies to improve the stress tolerance of flaxseed through genetic engineering or traditional breeding methods (Sudhakar et al., 2019).

Development of Resilient Cultivars:

Understanding the genetic basis of stress tolerance allows breeders to create resistant flaxseed varieties that can thrive in challenging environmental conditions.

By combining several traits of stress resistance, breeders can breed varieties with increased resistance to drought, heat, cold, and salinity stress. This contributes to the sustainability and stability of flaxseed production, ensuring reliable crop yields even in the presence of stressful conditions (El-Soda et al., 2019).

 Genetic variation and candidate genes associated with drought tolerance in linseed crop

Sr. GenesFunctionReference
1DREB (Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding) Genes:Transcription factors that regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes, including those involved in drought stress.Zhou, M. L., Ma, J. T., Pang, J. F., Zhang, Z. L., Tang, Y. X., & Wu, Y. M. (2010). Regulation of plant stress response by dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(54), 9255-9269.
2LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) Genes:Proteins that accumulate during late embryogenesis and play a protective role under stress conditions, including drought.Dash, P. K., Cao, Y., Jailani, A. K., Gupta, P., Venglat, P., Xiang, D., … & Datla, R. (2014). Genome-wide analysis of drought induced gene expression changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum). GM crops & food, 5(2), 106-119.
3SnRK (Sucrose Non-Fermenting-Related Kinase) Genes:Protein kinases involved in stress signal transduction pathways, regulating various stress-responsive genes.Zeng, W., Mostafa, S., Lu, Z., & Jin, B. (2022). Melatonin-mediated abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13, 847175.
4RD (Responsive to Dehydration) Genes:Proteins involved in signalling pathways that respond to water deficit conditions, mediating various physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress.Wang, W., Wang, L., Wang, L., Tan, M., Ogutu, C. O., Yin, Z., … & Yan, X. (2021). Transcriptome analysis and molecular mechanism of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) drought tolerance under repeated drought using single-molecule long-read sequencing. BMC genomics, 22, 1-23.
5ERD (Early-Responsive to Dehydration) Genes:Genes rapidly induced in response to drought stress, involved in various adaptive responses to water deficit conditions.Chugh, V., Kaur, D., Purwar, S., Kaushik, P., Sharma, V., Kumar, H., … & Dubey, R. B. (2022). Applications of Molecular Markers for Developing Abiotic-Stress-Resilient Oilseed Crops. Life, 13(1), 88.
6PP2C (Protein Phosphatase 2C) Genes:Protein phosphatases that negatively regulate stress-responsive signaling pathways, including those related to drought stress.Dash, P. K., Cao, Y., Jailani, A. K., Gupta, P., Venglat, P., Xiang, D., … & Datla, R. (2014). Genome-wide analysis of drought induced gene expression changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum). GM crops & food, 5(2), 106-119.
7Aquaporin Genes:Membrane transport proteins that regulate water movement across cellular membranes, critical for maintaining water balance and drought tolerance.Shivaraj, S. M., Deshmukh, R. K., Rai, R., Bélanger, R., Agrawal, P. K., & Dash, P. K. (2017). Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profile of aquaporin gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum). Scientific reports, 7(1), 46137.
8CAT (Catalase) Genes:Enzymes involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during drought stress, protecting the plant from oxidative damage.Waqas Mazhar, M., Ishtiaq, M., Maqbool, M., Akram, R., Shahid, A., Shokralla, S., … & Elansary, H. O. (2022). Seed priming with iron oxide nanoparticles raises biomass production and agronomic profile of water-stressed flax plants. Agronomy, 12(5), 982.
9SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) Genes:Enzymes involved in scavenging superoxide radicals during drought stress, reducing oxidative stress.Aghaee, P., & Rahmani, F. (2019). Biochemical and molecular responses of flax to 24-epibrassinosteroide seed priming under drought stress. Journal of Plant Interactions, 14(1), 242-253.
10P5CS (Delta-1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase) Genes:Enzymes involved in proline biosynthesis, which accumulates in response to drought stress and acts as an osmoprotectants to maintain cellular integrity.Qamar, A., Mysore, K. S., & Senthil-Kumar, M. (2015). Role of proline and pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism in plant defense against invading pathogens. Frontiers in plant science, 6, 503.
11FqRab7 (Flaxseed Rab7)Rab7 is a small GTPase protein that plays a key role in regulating intracellular vesicle trafficking and fusion. In linseed, the FqRab7 gene has been shown to be involved in drought tolerance by modulating the trafficking of membrane vesicles and controlling the fusion of auto phagosomes with lysosomes. This process is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and promoting stress tolerance under drought conditions.Hou, D., Zhao, J., Liu, M., Lu, W., Duan, H., Li, L., … & Gao, C. (2018). Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Rab7 GTPase is associated with salt stress response by regulating trafficking of vesicles. Frontiers in plant science, 9, 1173. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01173
12Probable cinnamyl alcoholDrought TolerancePreisner, M., Wojtasik, W., Kostyn, K., Boba, A., Czuj, T., Szopa, J., & Kulma, A. (2018). The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase family in flax: Differentiation during plant growth and under stress conditions. Journal of plant physiology221, 132-143.
13L- ascorbate peroxidaseEnhanced Drought ToleranceRahimzadeh, S., & Pirzad, A. (2017). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study. Mycorrhiza27, 537-552.
14Diacylglycerol kinase 5Drought ToleranceSoto-Cerda, B. J., Cloutier, S., Gajardo, H. A., Aravena, G., Quian, R., & You, F. M. (2020). Drought response of flax accessions and identification of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) governing agronomic and root traits by genome-wide association analysis. Molecular Breeding40, 1-24.
15Allene oxidase synthase 3Stomatal closure and Drought ToleranceHarms, K., Atzorn, R., Brash, A., Kuhn, H., Wasternack, C., Willmitzer, L., & Pena-Cortes, H. (1995). Expression of a flax allene oxide synthase cDNA leads to increased endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) levels in transgenic potato plants but not to a corresponding activation of JA-responding genes. The Plant Cell7(10), 1645-1654.
16Catalase isoenzyme cPromotes Drought Tolerance and responsive to water deprivation.Rahimzadeh, S., & Pirzad, A. (2017). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study. Mycorrhiza27, 537-552.
173- ketoacyl-CoA synthase 19Drought Tolerance and biomass related traitsYu, Y., Huang, W., Chen, H., Wu, G., Yuan, H., Song, X., … & Guan, F. (2014). Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline–alkaline stress by digital gene expression. Gene549(1), 113-122.
18Ankyrin repeat containing proteinSalt and drought susceptibility index and biomassSertse, D., You, F. M., Ravichandran, S., Soto-Cerda, B. J., Duguid, S., & Cloutier, S. (2021). Loci harboring genes with important role in drought and related abiotic stress responses in flax revealed by multiple GWAS models. Theoretical and Applied Genetics134, 191-212.
19Inositol Monophosphate 1Drought  toleranceSoto-Cerda, B. J., Larama, G., Gajardo, H., Inostroza-Blancheteau, C., Cloutier, S., Fofana, B., … & Aravena, G. (2022). Integrating multi-locus genome-wide association studies with transcriptomic data to identify genetic loci underlying adult root trait responses to drought stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany202, 105019.
20Agamous like 12Drought  tolerance and root growthDesta, D. S. (2019). Genomics of drought tolerance in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) (Doctoral dissertation, Université d’Ottawa/University of Ottawa).
21Nuclear factor y subunit A1Seed development and drought stress toleranceRai, G. K., Jamwal, G., Rai, G., & Singh, M. (2021). Understanding Transcription Factors in Plant Response to Drought Stress. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry34(2), 116-125.
22Early growth  response gene1Seed development and drought stress toleranceKanth, B. K., Kumari, S., Choi, S. H., Ha, H. J., & Lee, G. J. (2015). Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Camelina sativa to mine drought stress-responsive genes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications467(1), 83-93.