The public authority of Pakistan, with the help of the Canadian Global Improvement Organization (CIDA), started a program to advance the development of canola in the country.


The historical backdrop of canola creation in Pakistan is moderately later. Canola, likewise called rapeseed, is a yield that is exceptionally valued for its oil content and is filled widely in many regions of the planet. In Pakistan, nonetheless, canola production just started in the 1980s.

At first, canola was introduced as an elective yield with wheat, which was the principal cash crop in Punjab, Pakistan’s biggest area. The public authority of Pakistan, with the help of the Canadian Global Improvement Organization (CIDA), started a program to advance the development of canola in the country.

The program started with the importation of Canadian canola seeds, which were conveyed to ranchers across the nation. The ranchers were prepared to develop and collect the harvest and were given satisfactory help as data sources, for example, composts and pesticides, through the horticultural augmentation administrations.

In the underlying years, canola creation in Pakistan was restricted, as ranchers were reluctant to change from wheat to a moderately obscure yield. Be that as it may, with the help and support of the public authority and the progress of early adopters, canola production slowly expanded.

Today, canola is grown in many parts of Pakistan, including Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Balochistan. The yield is presently broadly perceived for its oil content, which is high in heart-solid unsaturated fats and low in soaked fats. Canola oil is likewise a favored cooking oil as it tastes neutral and has a high smoke point, which makes it ideal for broiling and baking.

Canola, otherwise called rapeseed, is a yield that has a place in the Brassicaceae Canola, otherwise called rapeseed, is a yield that has a place in the Brassicaceae family, which incorporates different vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage.

Canola is exceptionally esteemed for its palatable oil, which is low in saturated fat and high in sound unsaturated fats, including Omega-3 and Omega-6 unsaturated fats. Canola oil likewise contains vitamin E, which has cell-reinforcing properties.

Canola was first evolved during the 1970s through plant rearing procedures that eliminated specific bothersome parts, for example, erucic corrosives and glucosinolates, from the rapeseed plant. This new assortment of rapeseed was renamed “canola,” which is another way to say “Canadian oil, low corrosive.

Canola is exceptionally esteemed for its palatable oil, which is low in saturated fat and high in sound unsaturated fats, including Omega-3 and Omega-6 unsaturated fats. Canola oil likewise contains vitamin E, which has cell-reinforcing properties.

The public authority imported Canadian seeds and circulated them to ranchers across the nation. Ranchers were prepared for the development and reaping of canola and given essential sources of information like manures and pesticides.

Breeding processes

1: Selective breeding

Selective breeding is a customary strategy utilised in canola creation that includes choosing the best plants from a population in light of explicit rules, for example, yield, oil content, sickness obstruction, and other helpful qualities. The chosen plants are then crossed to make new cultivars with further developed attributes.

The course of particular rearing includes a few stages:

Assessment of the plant populace: The underlying step is to assess the plant populace for different qualities, for example, yield, oil content, illness obstruction, and other advantageous attributes. Plant reproducers select the best plants in view of their exhibition.

Choice of guardians: The raisers select the best-performing plants as guardians for the future. The point is to choose guardians who have integral positive attributes.

Crossbreeding: The chosen guardians are crossbred to make another age of plants. The point of crossbreeding is to consolidate the positive attributes of the two guardians for posterity.

Assessment of descendants: The offspring of the crossbred are assessed for beneficial characteristics. The best-performing plants are chosen as guardians for the future.

Rehashing the cycle: The cycle is rehashed for a few generations until the ideal characteristics are fixed in the populace and another cultivar is created.

Specific reproduction has been utilized for a long time in canola creation. It has been effective in working on numerous positive qualities, for example, yield, oil content, sickness opposition, and resilience to abiotic stresses. Nonetheless, this technique is tedious and requires an enormous number of plants to be assessed and crossed.

2: Genetic modification 

Genetic modification (GM) is a later strategy utilized in canola creation that includes the addition of explicit qualities to the plant’s genome to create new characteristics. This interaction includes a few stages:

  1. Recognizable proof of quality of interest: The initial step is to distinguish the quality of interest that can work on the ideal characteristic. The quality can be obtained from any life form, including microbes, infections, or different plants.
  2. Seclusion of the quality: When the quality of interest is recognised, it is disconnected from the contributing creature and altered to be viable with the canola plant.
  3. Addition of the quality: The quality of interest is embedded into the canola plant’s genome utilizing various methods, for example, molecule barrage or Agrobacterium-interceded change.
  4. Screening and choice: The changed plants are evaluated for the presence of the embedded quality and the ideal attribute. The best-performing plants are chosen for additional testing.
  5. Testing for wellbeing and adequacy: The chosen plants go through thorough security and viability assessments, including field preliminary tests, to guarantee that the GM plant is alright for human utilization and the climate.
  6. Commercialization and organization: When security and adequacy assessments are agreeable, the GM canola plant is popularised and sent to work on different characteristics, like herbicide opposition, bug obstruction, and dry spell resistance.

The GM cycle has become increasingly well known lately as a fast and effective strategy to make new cultivars with further developed characteristics. Be that as it may, it has additionally been exposed to public worries in regards to its security and ecological effects. GM canola creation is vigorously controlled to guarantee its wellbeing and supportability.

3: Tissue culture technique

 Plant tissue culture is a laboratory technique used in canola production to propagate plants from small tissue samples. This allows researchers to produce a large number of plants with identical genetic makeup, which is useful for breeding and the production of new cultivars. The tissue culture process involves several steps:

Initiation of cultures: The first step involves selecting suitable plant tissue samples from the canola plant and sterilising them to remove any microorganisms. The tissue samples are then transferred to a sterile nutrient medium, which provides all the necessary nutrients for plant growth.

Cell division and proliferation: The next step involves inducing the plant cells to divide and proliferate, creating small, undifferentiated plant structures called calluses. The callus is typically grown on agar plates or in liquid culture media containing plant growth regulators.

Regeneration: Once the callus has formed, it can be induced to regenerate into a whole plant through the addition of specific plant hormones. This process is called organogenesis or embryogenesis.

Rooting: The regenerated plants may not have developed roots, and therefore, they need to be stimulated to produce roots to enhance their growth.

Acclimatisation and transplanting: Once the plantlets have developed roots, they are transplanted into soil and kept under controlled conditions until they are ready to be planted in the field.

Plant tissue culture is a crucial technique in canola breeding and research, as it allows the production of genetically identical plants with desirable traits. However, it is a complex and delicate process that requires a high level of expertise, equipment, and strict sterile techniques.

4: Molecular markers

Molecular markers are generally utilized in canola creation to recognize and choose plants with helpful characteristics, for example, illness resistance, high oil content, and further developed yield. These markers are DNA groupings that can be utilized to follow the legacy of explicit qualities starting with one age and then onto the next.

There are a few sorts of sub-atomic markers utilized in canola creation, including:

Limitation piece length polymorphisms (RFLPs): RFLPs are DNA fragments that vary in length among various people or assortments. They are identified by processing DNA with explicit compounds that cut the DNA at explicit destinations, making sections of various sizes that can be pictured on a gel.

Intensified part length polymorphisms (AFLPs): AFLPs are a variety of RFLPs, yet they use PCR to intensify DNA sections as opposed to processing the DNA with compounds. This makes them quicker and more effective than RFLPs.

Straightforward grouping rehashes (SSRs): SSRs, likewise called microsatellites, are short DNA sequences that are rehashed on different occasions in succession. They are broadly appropriated all through the genome, making them valuable for hereditary planning and marker-aided determination.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): SNPs are single base pair contrasts between people or assortments. They are the most widely recognised sort of hereditary variety and can be distinguished using high-throughput sequencing innovations.

Molecular markers enjoy a few advantages over conventional reproducing strategies, like quicker determination, more prominent accuracy, and the capacity to choose for qualities that are troublesome or difficult to straightforwardly gauge. They are additionally valuable for following the legacy of numerous attributes at the same time and for recognising hereditary variety inside and among populations.

In canola creation, sub-atomic markers are utilized for marker-aided choice (MAS), which includes choosing plants with beneficial characteristics in view of their marker genotype as opposed to their aggregate.

This permits raisers to choose attributes that are challenging to gauge, like sickness opposition, and to lessen the time and cost of conventional reproducing methods.

Comparison with other oil seed crops

Canola is one of the most important oilseed crops worldwide, known for its high oil content, nutritional value, and versatility in various applications. In Pakistan, canola has gained significant importance over the years due to its high yield potential, adaptability to different agro-ecological zones, and favorable economic returns.

When it comes to comparing canola oilseed production in Pakistan with other oilseed crops, such as soybean, sunflower, and cotton, the following factors should be considered:

Yield Potential: Canola has a higher yield potential than most other oilseed crops grown in Pakistan. According to research studies, the average yield of canola in Pakistan can reach up to 2.7 tons per hectare, compared to 1.5 tons per hectare for sunflower and 0.9 ton per hectare for soybean.

Oil Content: Canola seeds have a higher oil content than soybean and cotton, but slightly lower than sunflower. On average, canola seeds contain around 40% oil, while sunflower contains 45-50%, soybean contains 18-22%, and cotton contains 15-25%.

Nutritional Value: Canola oil is considered one of the healthiest oils due to its low saturated fat and high monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids content. On the other hand, soybean oil has moderate levels of saturated and unsaturated fats, while cottonseed oil has high levels of saturated fat. Sunflower oil has a high level of unsaturated fat but a low level of saturated fat compared to cottonseed oil.

Adaptability: Canola is adaptable to a range of soil types and climatic conditions, making it suited to different agro-ecological zones in Pakistan. In contrast, soybean is relatively temperature sensitive and requires specific soil and water conditions, while sunflower is more adapted to the subtropical and temperate regions of the country.

Economic Returns: Canola is a profitable crop for farmers in Pakistan due to its high yield potential, good market demand, and attractive prices. According to the Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB), the average price of canola seed in 2020 was around PKR 6,000 to 6,500 per 40 kg, compared to PKR 3,500 for soybean and PKR 5,000 for sunflower.

Overall, canola stands out as a viable option for farmers looking to increase their oilseed production and profitability in Pakistan. Its higher yield potential, adaptability, nutritional value, and economic returns make it a preferred choice over other oilseed crops like soybean, sunflower, and cotton.


Canola (Brassica napus) is a flexible crop that offers a few uses. The following are a portion of the principal uses of canola:

1. Consumable Oil: Canola oil is the main result of the canola crop. It is a sound vegetable oil with a positive equilibrium of unsaturated fats, especially with low saturated fat and high monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. Because of its nonpartisan flavor and high smoke point, it is generally utilized in cooking, baking, and broiling. Also, its high security and usability make it ideal for business food creation.

2. Creature Feed: Canola meal is a side effect of oil extraction and is an essential wellspring of protein for creature feed, particularly for domesticated animals and poultry. It contains around 38–45% protein, which makes it a practical option in contrast to other protein sources. Besides, it additionally has great absorbability and adjusted amino corrosive profiles, making it a fundamental fixing in creature feed plans.

3. Biodiesel: Canola oil is an inexhaustible and low-carbon wellspring of biodiesel, a substitute for gasoline-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel produced using canola oil is a spotless consuming fuel with diminished ozone harming substance discharges and is acquiring universal fame as a supportable option in contrast to petroleum products.

4. Grease: Canola oil is likewise utilised as a base oil in the creation of ointments and water driven liquids. Its high oxidative dependability, incredible ease at low temperatures, and similarity with mineral and engineered oils make it appropriate for different modern applications.

5. Bio-Based Items: Canola oil is a flexible and inexhaustible unrefined substance for the development of bio-based items, including biodegradable plastics, surfactants, and emulsifiers.

Taking everything into account, the various purposes of canola open the door to enhancement and the farming area. Its popularity is driven by developing buyer familiarity with the significance of a sound eating routine, feasible creation practices, and concern for the environment.


Some major challenges to canola production in Pakistan include limited availability of high-quality seeds and inputs, a lack of research and development, limited access to modern farming techniques and equipment, and climate change-related issues such as water scarcity and changing weather patterns.


The solution to these challenges includes increasing investment in research and development to improve the production and quality of canola seeds, expanding access to modern farming techniques and equipment, developing and promoting climate-smart agriculture practices, promoting public-private partnerships to improve the availability of inputs and services, and enhancing policies and regulations to support the growth of the canola industry.