Lumpy skin disease is one of the most contagious diseases found in cattle and is caused by the Capri poxvirus.

Lumpy skin disease is one of the most contagious diseases found in cattle and is caused by the Capri poxvirus. In this disease, mucous membranes and nodules develop on the skin and cause severe illness and death in infected animals.

It is a significant problem in many nations around the world. Therefore, preventing and controlling the disease requires a proper understanding of the risk factors for lumpy skin disease.

An overview of the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of lumpy skin disease (LSD)

Lumpy skin disease, one of the most contagious diseases, was first identified in the late 1800s in South African region. Since then, it has been reported in other countries around the world.

Lumpy skin disease is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), and the agent responsible for LSD is Capri poxvirus, which belongs to the Poxviridae family. It spreads through direct contact with or interaction with affected or unhygienic animals. Further, the clinical manifestations of lumpy skin disease include the following:

  1. Fever
  2. Lacrimation
  3. Nasal discharge
  4. Hypersalivation

Factors associated with increased susceptibility to or transmission of lumpy skin disease:

There are a number of options from which LSD, one of the contagious diseases, can spread among the animals. Among those, viral strain, age of the animal, geographic distribution, environmental conditions, farm management, and poor knowledge of animal biosecurity among the farmers are imperatives.

Different genetic variants of the lumpy skin disease virus

The African strain of the Capripoxvirus is one of three distinct types that can induce LSD. It is also most frequently reported in countries in the Middle East. While the Indian strain is being figured out in Asia. Similarly, the Mediterranean strain is found in America and Europe.

Each strain differs in such a way that it is harmful. For example, in a comparison, the African strain has more acute symptoms and higher mortality rates than other different types of LSD strains. Therefore, it is important to spread proper awareness of each strain prevalent in different locations to combat the risk factor and LSD attacks.

Demographic pattern

The regional distribution of LSD, one of the most contagious diseases, is considered the most significant risk factor. Although it can also be seen in cooler regions around the world, this disease is most frequently spread in tropical and subtropical regions globally.

Moreover, the population of the region also plays a supportive role in the spread of LSD. As a result, countries with large populations of cattle, lax biosecurity regulations, and warm temperatures are more likely to have LSD outbreaks.

Climatic conditions

Like geographical distribution, environmental conditions influence the spreading and development of LSD. High humidity and temperature can augment the LSD spreading. Moreover, the increased number of animals in a small area also facilitates the transmission of viruses from one animal to another. To lower the chance of developing LSD, it is essential to make sure that animals are kept in clean, well-ventilated environments.

Lumpy skin affected the farmers financially:

Another risk factor for LSD is the animal’s age. Compared to adult animals, immature calves are more likely to catch the illness and are also more likely to experience severe indications.

Numerous factors may contribute to this, but the young calves immune systems make them more susceptible. Therefore, it is necessary to have proper data about the age of the animals to prevent them from being infected with LSD.

Costs associated with the lumpy skin disease

The economic condition has a significant relationship with LSD. The most frequent losses occur due to decreased milk supply in lactating animals, which increases morbidity and mortality and further lowers the reproductive ability of infected animals.

Furthermore, the vaccination and killing of diseased animals might be costly. Economic losses can occasionally be so severe that they even force the bankruptcy of the whole cattle farm. Thus, it is of key importance to be aware of the financial losses linked to LSD in order to stop or manage LSD.

Various options for treatment

Presently, there is no proper medication available to control lumpy skin disease. Though there are certain therapeutic alternatives available to lessen the symptoms and reduce the financial losses brought on by this disease.

Further, antibiotics can be used to reduce the intensity of the symptoms and avoid secondary bacterial infections in animals. Additionally, supportive care can be utilised to lessen the intensity of the symptoms and enhance the animal’s general health.

Strategies used for vaccination of lumpy skin disease

The most efficient means of preventing and controlling LSD is vaccination. Several vaccines are currently available on the market that protect the infected animals from illness. These vaccinations can be given either intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

The bottom line

The growth of nodules on the skin and mucous membranes is the hallmark of the highly contagious and economically disastrous disease “lumpy skin disease” in cattle, which can cause severe mortality and morbidity in infected animals.

Understanding the risk factors for this disease is important for effective treatment and vaccination methods, as well as for maintaining the profitability of the farm by minimizing financial losses.