Soybean Also Known As Soja Bean: Excellent Source Of Fibre

Soybean, (Glycine max), also called soja bean or soya bean, annual legume of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its edible seed. It is native of East Asia.

Soybean Also Known As Soja Bean: Excellent Source Of Fibre

Soybean, (Glycine max), also called soja bean or soya bean, annual legume of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its edible seed. It is native of East Asia. It is a rich source of Protein also excellent source of fibre. Oil extracted from soybean contain small amount of saturated fat. In Punjab, it plays an important role in crop diversification. Soybeans are a very rich source of plant-based protein and fat.

The soybean is economically the most important bean in the world, providing vegetable protein for millions of people and ingredients for hundreds of chemical products. Soybean called as golden beans is belongs to legume family.

Economic Importance:-

Currently, soybean cultivation in Pakistan has a small acreage. Its cultivation is being promoted in Pakistan to meet the demands of rapidly flourishing poultry industry.

The total economic impact on the U.S. economy from the soybean sector averaged $115.8 billion per year including $7.96 billion from crushing , the equivalent of more than 0.65 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP), and up to nine percent of the GDP for certain states..Soybean (SB) production occupies close to 6% of the world’s arable land.

Soybean expansion is occurring much faster than with other major grains or oilseeds. Soybeans increasingly are being employed as the modern input of choice for buyers. They are mainly used as intermediate food, feed, and industrial inputs, not final consumer products, therefore remaining somewhat invisible in the economy.

Only 2% of soybean protein is consumed directly by humans in the form of soy food products such as tofu, soy hamburger, or soy milk analogs. All but a very small percentage of the other 98% is processed into Soybean Meal (SBM) and fed to livestock, such as poultry and pigs. In this way, soybean demand is essentially a derived demand for meat.

Soybean also an excellent source of fibre has risen to become a leading crop because the income elasticity of meat is high. This chapter provides an overview of soybean production, marketing, and utilization. The future of soybean production and utilization is bright because of the growing demand for protein.

The United States continues to be the world’s largest soybean producer with some of the world’s lowest operating and logistics costs. New opportunities emerged with biodiesel that portend a significant new market for Soybean Oil (SBO).

The soybean is economically the most important bean in the world, providing vegetable protein for millions of people, excellent source of fibre and ingredients for hundreds of chemical products. The contribution of soybean farming was relatively high, which was 37.77% of agricultural business income and 18.87% of household income.

Magic Beans: Five Amazing Uses

It all starts in the field. An unassuming, short green plant emerges from the soil. Growing about thigh-high by mid-October, the soybeans are ready tostart their journey across the globe. From your car to the kitchen, let’s follow along and see five innovative uses for soy.

  • Healthier cooking oil

Soybean oil is used in baking cakes to frying french fries. It has a neutral flavor profile, and its dependable domestic production meets the economic needs of our food industry.

High oleic soybean oil, produced from a genetically modified soybean, is 100 percent U.S. grown and provides improved resistance to oxidation and extended performance in high-temperature and extended-use applications.

As a result, it can extend the shelf life of processed foods and fryer life. High oleic soybean oil also has an improved fat profile similar to olive oil. It contains lower saturated fats and three times the amount of monosaturated fatty acids, which benefit heart health when consumed in moderation.

Recently, a non-GMO variety was developed by a team of university researchers and will be introduced to fields in 2020. Calyxt, a Minnesota-based biotechnology company, also debuted a gene-edited variety of high oleic soybean in early 2019.

  • Sustainable fuel

Soybeans, excellent source of fibre are used to create biodiesel, a cleaner-burning, renewable alternative to regular diesel. The oil from soybeans is mixed with diesel fuel. Biodiesel made with soybean oil can help reduce greenhouse gases by up to 86 percent, compared to regular diesel. Many suppliers are starting to use biodiesel to transport products across the county, leaving a smaller environmental impact in their path.

  • Cleaner oceans, lakes, and rivers

While soybeans also an excellent source of fibre work hard to reduce carbon emission on the interstate, they are also working to keep dangerous oil out of the ocean. Soybean oil can be used to create an environmentally friendly solvent that can safety remove oil from creeks, streams and ocean shorelines without harming the environment.

In the near future it’s possible that when regular oil is spilled on a shoreline, soybean oil will come to the rescue, keeping animals safe while cleaning up the mess.

  • Safer everyday household products

With soy’s incredible versatility and cleaner impact on the environment, more and more manufacturers are starting to incorporate soy into everyday house hold products. Soy-based crayons are non-toxic and safer for children.

New candles made with soybean oil burn longer and cleaner, producing less smoke. Next time you’re shopping for supplies or cleaning products, rather than looking for non-GMO and organic labels, look for soybean oil ingredients for a safe, natural alternative.

  • Better food for animals

An essential part of farm animal well-being is a nutritious and balanced diet. Just because animal feed comes from one sack, it doesn’t mean they’re only eating one ingredient. These sacks contain carefully balanced diets with many essential ingredients.

Soybeans also excellent source of fibre are often one of those ingredients, providing a protein-powered boost for farm animals. Newly developed soybeans have increased digestibility for animals, which means their easier to eat and better for cattle, chickens, pigs and more.

OPTIMUM CONDITION FOR GROWTH:-

Temperature: 18-38°C

Rainfall: 30-60cm

Sowing Temperature: 25-38°C

Harvesting Temperature:  1

 PRACTICES FOR SOYBEAN CULTIVATION:-

 Soil:-

It gives good result, when grown on well drained, fertile loamy soils. pH of 6 to 7.5 is favourable for optimum yield of soybean. Water logged, saline/alkaline soils are not suitable for its cultivation. Low temperature affect crop severely.

Varieties:-

SL 525 (2003)

SL 744 (2010)

SL 958 (2014)

Alankar, Ankur, Bragg, Lee, PK 262, PK 308, PK 327, PK 416, PK 472, PK 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042, Pusa 16, Pusa 20, Pusa 22, Pusa 24, Pusa 37, Shilajeet, VL soya 2, VL soya 47.

LAND PREPARATION

Prepared field by giving two to three ploughings followed by planking.

Sowing:-

Time of sowing:-
First fortnight of June is best time for sowing Soybean.

Spacing:-
While sowing use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 4-7 cm.

Sowing Depth:-
Sow seeds at depth of 2.5-5 cm.

Method of sowing:-
Sow seeds with help of seed drill.

Seed :-

Seed Rate:-
Use seed rate of 25-30 kg for sowing in one acre land.

Seed Treatment:-
To protect seeds from soil borne diseases, treat seeds with Thiram or Captan@3 gm per kg of seeds.

 

Fertilizer Requirements (kg/acre)

UREA

SSPMURIATE OF POTASH
28200Apply if deficiency observed

Nutrient Requirements (kg/acre)

NITROGENPHOSPHORUSPOTASH
12.532Apply if deficiency observed

Apply FYM or well decomposed cowdung@4 ton/acre. Also apply Nitrogen@12.5 kg and Phosphorus@32 kg in form of Urea@28kg and SSP@200 kg per acre at time of sowing.

To obtain good growth and optimum yield, take spray of Urea@3 kg/150 ltr of water on 60th and 75th day after sowing.

WEED CONTROL

To keep field weed free, two hoeing are required, give first hoeing 20 days after sowing and second hoeing 40 days after sowing.

To control weed chemically, after sowing, within two days, take spray of Pendimethalin@800 ml/acre in 100-200 ltrs of water.

 IRRIGATION

Overall crop required three to four irrigation. Irrigation at time of pod filling stage is necessary. Water stress at this period will affect yield drastically. Apply irrigation depending upon rainfall conditions. No irrigation required in good rainfall conditions.

HARVESTING

Pods become dry and leaves changes their color to yellow and fall of, it is sign of crop is ready for harvesting. Harvest the crop with sickle or by hand. After harvesting, carry out threshing operation.

POST-HARVEST

After drying, carry out proper cleaning of seeds. Remove small size seeds, damaged seeds and crop stalks.