Quality Of Soybean In Terms Of Its Products And Essential Amino Acid

The highest amount levels of exogenous amino acids were determined in the soybean grains regardless of the origin of the raw material.

Quality Of Soybean In Terms Of Its Products And Essential Amino Acid

Products made from soybeans are increasingly being used in the feed and food industries. Currently, India produced 9.3 million metric tonnes of soybeans, or nearly 4% of the entire global production, which totals 219.8 million metric tonnes.

Less than 10% of this produce is directly utilised for human consumption (Gandhi, 2006). Today’s assessments of soy products are based on a considerably wider range of tests, enabling a more precise assessment of the nutritional value of the various products.

The value of soybeans products will increase with advancements in technological adaptations of soybean products and a greater understanding of the impact on performance and health of relatively unknown chemicals, such as isoflavones.

The importance of accurate analysis of these novel chemicals will increase. At every point in the food and feed industry’s protein supply chain, soy products must undergo quality analysis.

Table 1. Classification of soybean quality factors (Hurburgh and Brumm, 2004)

Classification                                       Example                                                        Comment
DefectsForeign material

• Damage

• Splits

• Heat damage

• Toxic substances

Defects reduce the value of grain

for all users.

• Moisture variation

• Insect infestation

• Sour, heating

Unstable grain quickly becomes

high in defects

Shipment and storage factors

SOYBEAN GRADING:

Grading is the process of grouping grain and oil seeds based on variables or qualities that determine their grade. Inspection is the term for the grading procedure. In 1916, the first US grain grades and standards were created. The methods and tools used for official inspections are decided upon by the Federal Grain Inspection Service, a branch of the USDA.

According to the grain standards act, soybeans are defined as grain that contains 10% or less of other grains for which standards have been established and 50% or more of whole or broken soybeans that cannot pass through an 8/64-inch round hole sieve.

Yellow and mixed soybeans are the two different types of soybeans. Yellow or green seed coatings that are yellow or have a yellow tinge in cross section can be found on yellow soybeans.

Quality factors in the US soybean grades (FGIS, 2004)

            Factor       DescriptionUnit of measure
Moisture (MC)Fraction of water on a

total weight basis

Percent, wet basis
Test weight (TW)Bulk density of whole

kernels.

Pounds per bushel
Foreign material (FM)Fraction of fine particles

and non grain material

Percent, total weight

basis

Heat Damage (HDK)Soybeans and pieces

of soybeans that are

materially discolored

and damaged by heat

Percent, total weight

basis

Total damage (DKT)Fraction of beans with

mold, insect or frost

damage.

Percent, total weight

basis.

SplitsSoybeans with more than

one fourth of the bean

that is removed and not

damaged

Percent, total weight

basis

Musty, sour, heatingPresence of mold odors

or heating grain

Yes or no judgment

The investigation revealed no statistically significant variations between the amounts of specific amino acids in the protein of the soy drink and soy dessert manufactured from genetically modified soybean grains .The content of amino acids in the soy products analyzed was statistically significantly lower than that in the raw material.

According to Zaremba [2]and Hoffman et al. [3], the technological processes of manufacturing food from soybean grains cause the contents of individual components to decrease several times. Key et al. [4] and Craig [5] claim that adding nutrients to those soy products could prove practical to offset their nutritional value and make it comparable to the nutritional value of the animal protein-based products.

soy dessert made from GM soybean 

Amino AcidsProductProduct from Soybean GrainContent (g/100 g)

               (x)

Sx (+/−)
Phenylalanine

Leucine

Soy drink

Soy dessert

Soy drink

Soy dessert 

          GM

       GM

0.151

0.157

0.228

0.234

0.001

0.009

0.001

0.004

IsoleucineSoy drink

Soy dessert

    GM0.207

0.145

0.136

0.002

MethionineSoy drink

Soy dessert

      GM0.040

0.042

0.002

0.002

ValineSoy drink

Soy dessert

      GM0.137

0.141

0.001

0.007

LisineSoy drink

Soy dessert

      GM0.189

0.194

0.001

0.005

CONCLUSION :
High quality soybeans and soy based foods are generally preferred and the standards available will assist the producer and consumers in the selection of the best based on various physical and chemical characteristics and end-use.

These standards will be useful for all the people concerned with the soybean industry globally. Based on the research analyses performed, it was confirmed that, except for tryptophan, exogenous amino acids were present in the soybeans grain and in their products.

The highest amount levels of exogenous amino acids were determined in the soybean grains regardless of the origin of the raw material. This confirms that the nutritional value for amino acids does not change depending on the grain type.