Soybean is one of the most extensively cultivated and used oilseed crops. Soybean is used as animal food, industrial products, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, human food, etc.

Soybean is one of the most extensively cultivated and used oilseed crops. Soybean is used as animal food, industrial products, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, human food, etc. The genome size of soybean is 1100 MB, and it is diploidized and tetraploid.

Soybeans are dicots, which means they have two cotyledons. Soybean is the vernacular of China. The civilised soybean (Glycine max) arises from its wild progenitor, Glycine ussuriensis, which is currently known as Glycine soja.

Nutritional value:

Soybeans are rich in protein and a sufficient source of both carbs and omega-3 fatty acids. 100 g of soybeans contain about 36 g of protein, while 100 g of a boiled egg contains about 13 g of protein. Potassium, K 1797 mg Sodium, Na 2.0 mg Zinc, Zn 4.9 mg Copper, Cu 1.7 mg Manganese, Mn 2.52 mg Selenium, Se 17.8 μg Vitamin B12, 0.0 μg Vitamin A 2.0 μg Vitamin E: 1.95 mg Vitamin B6: 0.38 mg Folic acid, 375 μg

Cultivation of soybeans

In soybean cultivation, if we talk about climate, temperature should be 18 to 38°C, rainfall should be 30 to 60cm, and sowing temperature should be 25 to 38 °C. Harvesting temperatures range from 18 to 25°C.

Soil Type:

Fertile loam soils are good for growing soybeans, and optimum PH of 6 to 7.5 is favorable for better soybean growth. Alkaline soils are not suitable for its growth.

Photoperiod for soybean cultivation:

Soybean is a short day plant, and each variety has a critical day length, so the best time for plantation is June and July.

Land preparation for soybeans:

Plowing is done two to three times, followed by planking, so the field is prepared.

Spacing Requirement:

The seed requirement for soybean cultivation is 55kg or 65 kg per hectare, with a spacing of 30cm. Therefore, row-to-row spacing is 45 cm, and plant-to-plant spacing is 7cm.

Sowing method:

A seed drill is used to sow soybean seeds.

Seed requirement:

The seed requirement is 30kg per acre . And for one- hectare 100kg requirement. Before sowing seed, treatments are done for the safety of the seed.

Weed control:

Usually two hoeings are necessary to keep fields weed-free, so the first hoeing is usually performed 20 days after sowing and the second after 40 days.

Irrigation requirement:

Usually, four irrigations are required for soybean cultivation. Irrigation is very necessary at the time of pod formation. So yield will be affected at this stage if drought stress occurs. When soybean is at the vegetative stage, it requires 0.7 inches of water per week, but at the flowering stage, the plant needs twice that amount of water.

Pest management:

Pests like white flies attack the soybean crop and cause a huge loss in yield. So to control white flies, spraying of thiamethoxam at 40 g should be done properly . The blister beetle is also an insect of soybeans and causes damage at the flowering stage, so grain yield is affected .So Indoxacarb 14.5 SC at 200 mL per acre should be used. So high yield potassium and phosphorous are recommended, so economic returns are increased.

Side effects of soybeans:

Soybeans can cause constipation, diarrhea, and allergies in children and adults. Also, it can cause obesity and cause some mild stomach and intestinal side effects. Soybean causes either weak estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. Soybean affects testosterone levels and may interfere with thyroid regulation.

Steps for a Higher Soybean Yield:

1. First of all, variety selection is important.

2. Seed should be treated with fungicide when planted early.

3. Management strategy to control weeds in the field.

4. Harvesting loss is minimised by harvesting the crop when the moisture content is about 17%.

5. We can use cow manure to maintain moisture at emerging stage.

6. If we want a high yield, then phosphorus and potassium are the best fertilisers for growing soybeans.

7. Proper Disease Control

8. Planting date and plant spacing are also important for high yield.

Cultivation and breeding methods of soybeans:

The life cycle of soybeans includes: seed and germination seedling and growing plant flowering and small pods large pods and mature pods.

Sowing time:

Soybeans were successfully established in late April or early May. However, June is the best time for sowing soybeans. Soybeans can be planted anytime in the spring or summer. Flowering starts 50 to 60 days after sowing, and soybean reaches physiological maturity 140 days after sowing.

Fertilizer requirement:

These mineral nutrients are essential for soybean growth: nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium, zinc, boron, chloride, nickel, and copper. So increasing the quantity of NPK fertiliser can increase soybean yield and growth. So phosphorous and potassium nutrients are important for high soybean yields.

Harvesting time for soybeans:

Soybean reaches physiological maturity 140 days after sowing. Harvesting begins at 14% moisture. So the first sign of maturity is that the leaves will turn brown and fall off, exposing the mature pods of soybeans. So, pods, seeds, and stem turn brown when field crops mature. At the time of maturity, the moisture content should be 13 to 14%.

Breeding methods include:

Artificial hybridization; natural hybridization; introduction; and heterosis breeding. If we want to develop superior cultivars of soybean, then cross-breeding is an effective breeding method. So, we can improve the yield of soybeans using this method.

Challenges in soybean production:

There are some problems regarding soybean production, including:
1. Weeds and diseases
2. Pests
3. Foliar feeding
4. Absence of production technology
5. Absence of extension service
6. Variety selection is also a problem

Solution of common problems:

1. Use of certified seed
2. Use of preemergent herbicide
3. Manage diseases
4. Maintenance of fertility foundation
5. Use of seed treatment
6. Production of new gene – technologies


Soybeans are a good source of proteins and are a good source of omega-3 fatty acids and fibre, so we need to take soybean food on a daily basis. It is harmless to use on a daily basis. Soybean improves our heart health and relieves menopausal symptoms. Therefore, we can gain high quality protein and healthy fat from soybeans.

This article is jointly authored by Bushra Yasmeen, Dr. Humaira Razaq, and Dr. Farooq A. Khan.