Sexually Transmitted Diseases And The Future Of Dairy Industry

The losses in dairy are mainly due to sexually transmitted diseases, there should be proper diagnosis and identification of these venereal disease.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases And The Future Of Dairy Industry

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are transmitted during coitus and are hence called Venereal diseases. The use of artificial insemination has contributed to reducing the probability of STDs. Trichomoniasis, chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. These are very notorious diseases to cause abortion in cattle and buffaloes.

Livestock farming is inevitable in growing countries. Pakistan is an agricultural country; people are linked with livestock raising and agriculture lands. The overall status of farming is not at optimum because of certain problems linked to infrastructure, low income, and lack of skill for farming.

Abortion can be spontaneous and non-spontaneous, when the process of abortion started, it could not be stopped, rather it would be facilitated. There are losses of the conceptus, maceration of the fetus, mummification of the fetus, and pyometra occurred.

The post-exposure of this pathogen to animals causes some other ailments like fever, anorexia, and even death in complicated cases.

Trichomoniasis is caused by T. fetus in cattle and T. vaginalis in humans. It is pear in shape and having flagellates for motion. There are four numbers of flagellates present on trichomonas.

It causes abortion in the first trimester, vaginitis, infertility, and embryo loss. It is transmitted by coitus, therefore, is called a sexually transmitted parasite. T. fetus has two forms: one is a trophozoite and the other is pseudocyst. The trophozoite is an infective form, which is responsible for the disease and the pseudocyst is a dormant stage.

Diagnosis can be based on culture, smear, direct examination, and molecular methods. A two-chambered kit named as InPouch kit® can be used for diagnosis, the use of flagyll™ is a better treatment.

Control and prevention strategies based on the culling of infected bulls and use of AI. Chlamydia is an STD and caused by bacteria known as Chlamydia trachomatis. It is transmitted through vaginal discharge or semen and can be transmitted through genital contact. This is present in humans only.

Bovine campylobacteriosis is an STD of cattle and is caused by C. fetus subsp. venerealis and transmitted through coitus. This causes abortion, infertility of bulls, and repeat breeding. The control of disease is the culling of bulls.

Brucellosis is a venereal disease of cattle and is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle mainly. It causes termination of pregnancy in 3rd trimester and infertility in male. The economic significance of this disease is high.

Leptospira has a high significance in livestock farming because it causes outbreaks in dairy farms. This is caused by Leptospira hardjo bovis, and Leptospira Pomona. Both strains may also cause severe illness in humans, as well. This is present in all farm animals. They are usually present in the kidneys of infected animals.

The losses in dairy are mainly due to sexually transmitted diseases. The need of the hour is there should be proper diagnosis and identification of venereal disease. Control strategies should be adopted to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.

Modern dairy practices are linked with strict biosecurity parameters. Our dairy farmers suffered due to poor diagnostic techniques, infrastructures, and hand on skills. High value animals are imported from US and Europe, but lack of modern infrastructure to run dairy farms are making the trouble in ways of modern dairy industry development in Pakistan.