Electronically solid fuel charging system technology in brick-kiln industry, a modern technique, recently introduced by a local Pakistani engineer and authenticated by academia and technical experts of the Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, is being featured as highly efficient to abolish kilns’ contribution in injurious smog by lowering smoke emission into atmosphere.

The term “smog” was first used in the early 1900s to describe a mix of smoke and fog. It is an air pollution that reduces visibility. The smoke usually appears from burning of coal, crops remains and some other items made of plastic. Smog also becomes common phenomenon in industrial areas, and remains a familiar sight in cities.

Brick-kiln are stated as one of the major causes behind smog in the country. There are nearly 20,000 small and big kilns in the country, producing almost 45 billion bricks annually. Pakistan is third big brick kiln producer in South Asia after India and Bangladesh.

In Pakistan’s brick-kiln industry, coal is major source of fuel for baking of bricks. Similarly, some cheaper materials including crops waste and plastic material were also used for fuel purpose which adds pollution into the atmosphere.

Thus, the brick-kiln emit different air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury, arsenic, and lead etc. The pollutants are considered injurious to human health. Therefore, effective approach was inevitable to address the issue of pollution and smog. The Environment Department has issued guidelines for conversion of conventional kilns to the zigzag technology as it significantly helps to reduce pollution.

However, another latest technology was introduced at a local kiln by a Pakistani engineer known as electronic solid fuel charging technology, which is free of pollution and marked far better than the zigzag technology. The electronically solid fuel charging kiln designed by engineer Muhammad Kashif, had been installed at a kiln, owned by Amjid Jagwal, in tehsil Shuja bad.

Engineer Muhammad Kasif talking to APP said that the electronically solid fuel charging kiln did not produce smoke. Elaborating the details, he added, “The traditional style kiln produces carbon mono-oxide 800 newton per meter while electronically fire controlled kiln produces less than 190 newton per meter only. Similarly, the production ratio of other gases including nitrogen oxide, and Sulphur dioxide are also extremely low”. The new technology is basically fuel control technology which ensures 100 percent combustion, he added.

To a query about huge difference of smoke emission, Kashif said that electronically controlled kiln had a certain mixture of oxygen and fuel material which led to complete combustion. The 100% combustion leads to zero pollution. Stating the cause of smoke in traditional style or zigzag technology kilns, the engineer remarked that the presence of oxygen was essential for ignition. Usually, the oxygen did not find access in bottom of the kiln and instead of active fire, there emerged smoke only.

“However, the electronically fire controlled kilns have sensors. The sensors maintained proper temperature by fueling the material in smooth and systematic way as per requirement in the kiln for complete combustion”, he added. About third party audit against claim of zero pollution, he said that the minor level white smoke emitted by electronically controlled kiln was analyzed in SJS lab, an internationally known lab. The results were found satisfactory, he maintained.

Chairman Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Professor Dr Abdul Wahid said that a technical team of BZU had visited the site. The experts team also found the technology environment friendly. The fuel saving it has brought up to 40% to 45%. Similarly, A class bricks production is also about 95% to 98%, said Dr Abdul Wahid.

About cost on installation, the Engineer stated the fuel was being controlled through a locally designed machine. Its price at international level is about Rs 6 million. However, the machine was designed within a low budget of Rs 2 million only. About other benefits, Muhammad Kashif said that it offered 98 percent “A” class bricks. In traditional or zigzag style kiln, only 70 to 75 percent “A” class bricks were achieved.

Replying to another question regarding the installation of the modern technology in traditional or zigzag kiln, Kashif said that kiln design, itself, had nothing to do with smoke. “Actually, it is the ignition style of fire which creates smoke. The machine keeps ensuring constant and controlled fire at required areas and manage complete combustion which prevent emission of smoke”, he added.

Muhammad Amjid Jagwal, the owner of the electronically fuel control kiln, expressed satisfaction and said that as matter of fact, “I am satisfied with my environment-friendly and cost-effective kiln.” He said that the kiln did not produce black-smoke, adding that he was also availing 45% savings against the fuel cost.

Source: Daily Times

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