Wildlife is precious gift of Almighty Allah. The term wildlife is not only cover to wild animals it also includes the wild plants, insects, small type of vertebrates, fungi.


Animals, plants and other microorganisms are very important for maintaining a healthy ecological balance on this planet. These animals, planets and microorganisms are also very important for humans because each organism has a unique value and place in ecosystem. They play important role in food chain.  Many of the plants species and animals and other microbes are getting endangered and also going to the extinct. The natural habitats of wild organisms are destroyed by humans’ activities such as land development, pollution, industrialization, and urbanization. Some  other factors also contribute to  the extinction of wildlife i.e., the factors are of wildlife for hunting of animals for meet, leather, fur and ornaments. Plants species are also endangered because of deforestation by getting wood, medicine. Some people hunt animals for their pleasure life, it is important to take strict actions . If soon, no strict actions are taken then a lot of indigenous species will become endangered and moving the level of extinction. The extinction of wildlife changed the pattern of food chain and has negative impact on humans, for the beauty of this planet, equilibrium on the ecosystem and  food chains, it is very crucial important for humans to save the wildlife.

Damaging Factors to Wildlife:

On earth, few places are left where the humans’ impacts have not been felt. We have investigated and left our impression on every side of the globe. As human population and its needs increasing day by day, this damages the natural habitat of wild animal and plant diversity. Directly or indirectly the human population involved to destroy the wildlife. Many ecosystems are facing different type of threats which can cause the wild life extinction.  In past,  hundreds of  years ago, in the U.S.  the agriculture and land uses have been changed enormously.

Predation and the livestock Industry:

The most sustained, one of the earliest and most widely recognized kind of wild life damage is predation upon life stock by large carnivores. As early as 1600’s, in the East, the large predators were destroyed  shot, hunt of  trapping and for the wolves and cougars were hunted to protect wildlife. Timber wolf which is present in Western state was killed  red wolf;  was resident of  South is an example of endangered species. Cougar and black bear also known as important  animals. And another example of predation is golden eagle which is particularly present in Texas and New Mexico. Thousands of these[golden eagles] were killed by private gunners in era craft. These incidents were occurred after World-War II.

Other Factors Contributing to Wildlife Damage

Illegal Wild life Trade:

There is humongous illegal trade of wild animals. It has been estimated that appear  in one year, almost hundreds of millions gathered by illegal wildlife trade. Most ionic species i.e rhino and elephant have been damaged.

Habitat destruction:

 The most important factor which destroy the wildlife is habitat destruction. Mainly due to anthropogenic compacts are involved to damage the habitat of an animal.  But also natural disasters which are  fire thunder volcanic activities etc. are involved to destroy the natural habitat of wildlife . For example, the fire ignition  in Amazon and Australian  forests cause damaged many organisms and ecosystem of that place disturbed. Millions of species disturbed by their ecosystem or habitat.

Invasive species:

When non- native species, accidentally or intentionally are introduced in an area, these invasive species interbreed and reproduce offspring quickly, the number of species increases in that ecosystem. Approximately, 42% species are threatened and endangered due to this type of stress.

The pollution is also dangerous entity for wildlife.


Countless  stars are present in our galaxy but as compare to these stars, there are 500 times more pieces of microplastics in sea. Approximately in each year eight thousand million tons of plastics are drawn in sea. In this waythe water pollution has been increased day by day. More then 600 species of marine are threatened due to water pollution. Heavy metals like Mg, Mercury, oil-spills Cd and AR damage the gills of  fish. When the gills of fish damage the survival of fish dies. So the marine life is damaged.


It is the major and one of the most important factors that effects the life – style of organisms. Every organism has its own rare traits  regarding its physiology and environment. These rare traits make the animal specific  for its environment. But recently, it is observed  that due to urbanization and industrialization  the traits of organisms have been changed and in this way the life style of organisms disturbed, and the survival of animal become difficult in its environmental habitat. Here we code some examples that how industrialization shows its impact on wild-life diversity, 1 Like DDT cause thinning the egg shells of birds, in this way the eggs of birds break rapidly and the diversity of birds decreases. 2 Recently in India the population of vulture decreased due to drug residue. 3.  The population of bird also effected due to industrial pollution. These are notable example of industrialization impact on wild-life diversity. Rapidly the strength of raptorial birds and ecological degradation have took the attention of researchers and environmentalists. The urbanization and industrialization not only effected the wild-life diversity it also show the negative impact on food chain. When the food chain disturbed the number of species also effected.  Noise pollution and other pollutants  which are come from industries and urban cities also cause negative impacts on wild – life diversity . Like Markhor  (national animal of Pakistan) does not feel comfortable in noisy area. Noise pollutions change the hormones of Markhor, so Markhor becomes unable to reproduction, and in this way the progeny of Markhor decreases.

Climate Change:

Due to severe storms and intense rise of temperature and level of oceans ultimately all these activities contribute to the climatic change and results Arctic sea ice has been melting. Due to severe climatic change  our food –security and sources are also scared


Predation is the major factor that shows positive impact on wild diversity and balanced food chain and ultimately equilibrium the ecosystem. Poaching , habitat destruction and industrialization are the main reasons that declined our wild diversity. And  all these factors ultimately shows negative impacts on our ecosystem.


Javeria Abbas1, Hammad Ur Rehman Bajwa1,*, Hafsa Abbas1, Aqsa Abbas1 and Khansaa1

  1. Department of Biological Sciences
  2. Punjab Group of Colleges, Pasrur

By Dr. Hammad Ur Rehman Bajwa

PhD Scholar, Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urnana-Champaign.