Food Safety & Nutrition Issue Aggravating Due To Exponential Population Growth, Agro-Scientists Making Efforts To Maximize Productivity.

Food Security And Nutrition Issue Is Aggravating Due To Exponential Population Growth. Where The Agro-Scientists Are Making Consciously Efforts To Maximize Agricultural Productivity. Several biotic as well as abiotic threats are also emerging, especially movement and evolution of invasive species, pest resurgence, pesticide resistance and climate change with the passage of time. To maximize production and management of insect pest huge chemical application encouraged these tactics leads diminishing of nutrition values of food.

In developing country especially in Pakistan wheat play a vital role as a staple food of low class as well as upper class population. To minimize chemical hazards particularly in health, environmental and maintain food nutrition status there is dire need to follow the eco-friendly tactics. Wheat is the most widely cultivated food crop in Pakistan. In terms of area Pakistan is one of the top ten wheat growing countries in the world. Wheat is an important part of the diet of Pakistan’s population. It accounts for 60% of their diet.  The average per capita daily consumption of food in Pakistan is about 125 kg.  The agricultural policy also plays an important role in the government of  Pakistan’s policies .  Wheat accounts for 10% of the value added to agriculture and 2.2% of GDP.

Insects pests of wheat include aphid, termite, pink stem borer, Armyworm, pod (spikes)borer, black ant, cutworms, Americanworms and ghujia weevil.

Insect pest of Wheat crop

Aphid: it is called slow movement insect  because when its population increases, and continuously teased, it does not move from its place or starts moving slowly.  It is a small light green pear-shaped worm with a double auricles (groove) in the last part of its abdomen from which it secretes a juicy liquid, which causes a black mould to grow on wheat.  On wheat  mostly occur between second week of February to last week of March.  If the temperature drops to extreme low during this time, its population stops abruptly. The crop can usually withstand a slight or moderate attack of aphid and less prone to damage.  It’s biological control, ladybird beetles, chrysopa, spiders, sirphidflies and parasitoids wasps greatly reduce the incidence of  aphid. Ladybird beetle  reduce it’s population  to 75 percent.  Infected plants can be controlled by spraying with high pressure water if the infestation (more than a population limit).  Or soap, or oil, can be used as a spray, the best of which can be cured with a spray of neem and canola oil.

Biological control Agents

Armyworm: Their  larvae  are common on infected crop leaves. They are also called Lashkari(army) because they attack on crop crop in the form of groups (Lashkar) like army.  They also occasionally become epidemic.Its caterpillars damaging the wheat leaves and stalks.  It can be easily controlled by parasitoids that damage larvae and eggs, or ash powder can be used if its attack is less, which can significantly reduce its attacks.

Pink stem borer: It is mostly a pest of paddy, but it diapause on paddy straw in winter and also damages wheat as an alternative host.  In infected plants does not form seeds in spikes.  Its biological control is similar to that of armyworm.  At the same time, either uproot the affected plants or cut down the affected ones. 

Americanworms: Its larvae are slightly thicker and brown in color.  It is more common in wheat when the grains in the stalks are milky eaten the soft  grains.  This moths comes from cotton to wheat, so either destroy the cotton sticks or bury them in the field.  Trichogramma greatly damages its eggs.

Cutworms: are called thief worms because their caterpillars are nocturnal in nature and active at night and cut the stems of new wheat plants near soil surface at night. while caterpillars are not visible during the day. Like   Someone seems to have taken advantage of the darkness of night to damage the crop.  Its habit is to eat less and too cutting and cause more damage.  Timely irrigation and if there is a slight attack, use of ash powder is also beneficial.

Termites: This is a yellowish worm, its characteristic is that it builds houses in groups.  It attacks most of the crop roots, it attacks the crop in patches.  It is more common in rain fed areas.  Its perception is chemically better.  Cultivation can be done by poisoning the seeds and deep ploughing reduce it’s colonies development and increasing damage.

Conclusion :

As compared to chemical control tactics organics manoeuvre secure environmental risks, health hazards and especially food safety as well as nutritious values can be maintained . Beneficial aspects of nature can be saved from destructive factors. Chemical residues in staple fruits, vegetables and grains crops may be avoided from long terms production planning.