Genetic Engineering: Altering The Human Gene Pool Forever

The survived bacteria save a portion of the viral DNA in their genetic code in the DNA repository called CRISPR.

By SHEHRBANO SARFRAZ AND HAJRA MALIK

History:

Our common goal is to make our lives better. Living things can be altered to benefit us by selectively breeding their traits, especially plants and animals. Scientists do very well with this but have never really understood how all of this works.

But with the discovery of the biological code of all living things: deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, a double helix molecule that causes the growth, development, function and reproduction of every living thing. Details are recorded on the structure of double helix DNA in genetic material. The four nucleotides A, C, G and T combine and form a code containing commands throughout the process. By changing the commands you change the entire genetic map of that body. As soon as DNA is discovered, people try to manipulate it. From this manipulation we can end maternal infertility in humans. This has also led to the production of glowing zebra fish, fast-growing salmon, featherless hens and see through frogs.

CRISPR; A Revolution:

Over the years, Gene editing was expensive, complicated and time-consuming. This has now been replaced by a new technology known as: CRISPR. With this, engineering costs are greatly reduced. Instead of a year or months. It takes a few weeks to do the tests and everyone in the lab with the right knowledge and tools can do it. It really has the power to change the genetic makeup of all human beings forever. Bacteriophages are viruses that attack and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages attach their genes to bacteria and take over their biosynthetic machinery. Bacteria are resistant, but they fail because their mechanisms are weak. But in some cases, bacteria survive a virus. This then activates its effective antiviral system. The survived bacteria save a portion of the viral DNA in their genetic code in the DNA repository called CRISPR. Here it is kept until the virus attacks again. When the bacteriophages attacks again, the bacterium quickly copies a copy of the RNA from a previously stored DNA database and produces a protein called Cas9. The revolution began when scientists discovered that CRISPR was alterable. CRISPR is accurate and inexpensive, enabling genetic engineering to change genes and to identify and study specific DNA sequences. It also works for everyone whether they are microorganisms, plant animals or humans.

DESIGNER BABIES:

These modified future humans; Designer Babies will experience a gradual but irreversible change in the human genetic pool. From grandparents to great-grandchildren the whole human family can be transformed. Ways to alter a human embryo for the enhancement of certain traits are already in existence, although these technologies are still in their developmental stages. Chinese Scientists have studied human embryos and somewhat successful in their second attempt. It has shown many of the challenges we still face in altering of human embryos but it is also clear that scientists are working to resolve them.

These modified humans can change the genetics of all our future generations because their inherited genetic and genetic traits will be passed on to the next generation and can be passed on from one generation to the next. This will go a long way: the first baby will not be fully formed, but may be designed to eradicate the genetic disease that runs in the baby’s family. As these biological technologies continue and advance, more and more people can argue that not using these genetic mutations is wrong, and it is a cruel act for all children with genetic diseases that cannot be easily treated.

Scientists have discovered that you can configure CRISPR to edit living cells. It can only be temporary until CRISPR treatment in humans cures genetic diseases such as Hemophilia or Huntington’s disease before even the birth of induvial carrying these genes.

But once the door is opened it will never be closed. When our knowledge of this grows the desire for better and better will development. And the greed of the invincible will increase with it. What If you make your offspring immune to hemophilia, that won’t harm anyone? How about making them good looking, giving them perfect metabolism, good vision, desired height and muscle building. And it is a matter of time.

This rejects natural human by predicting genes and traits according to your own view of what is healthy. The fact is that we already live in this world. Often, mere suspicion of genetic defects in a fetus can lead to abortion. For example in cases of Down syndrome or fragile X syndrome about 90% of all pregnancies that are diagnosed are aborted. The decision to have an abortion is a personal one, but it is important to accept the fact that we have already chosen our children according to medical conditions. But it is clear that none of this will happen soon: as CRISPR is strong and advanced, but it is unreliable.

Ethics of Designer babies:

According to Times article in 1999, one couple having two boys wanted to preselect the gender of their third baby as girl and scientists considered this as an option to be opted. This could led to a many ethical issues, especially in south Asian countries where baby boys are more wanted than girls. And this could led to an increase demand of boy’s only and less number of girls.

On the other hand the parents whose children suffer from deadly genetic diseases and the diseases that run in families can family find a cure and get relieved through this technology. Only altering one of the gene of a baby and enhancing the whole progeny of the family.

The growing capacity to alter embryos presents many opportunities to improve the health of the fetus through prenatal diagnosis, but these opportunities are accompanied by social outcomes that can have serious consequences in the future. Finally, designer babies have great opportunities in the field of medicine and scientific research, but there are still many ethical questions that need to be considered. . But it is clear that none of this will happen soon: as CRISPR is strong and advanced, but it is unreliable.

AUTHORS: SHEHRBANO SARFRAZ AND HAJRA MALIK KINNAIRD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN UNIVERSITY, LAHORE

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