Water pollution becomes worse as a result of overcrowding in urban areas. Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes are the major pollutants of agnostic habitats.

Environmental Education and management of water Pollution in pakistan have a great importance. Human activities including industrialization and agricultural practices contributed immensely in no small measure to the degradation and pollution of the environment which adversely has an effect on the water bodies (rivers and ocean) that is a necessity for life. This paper tries to discuss basically what water pollution is and equally to address the source, effect control and water pollution management as a whole. 

The importance of water for sustenance of life cannot be overemphasized. Whether it is in use of running water in our homes, rearing cattle and growing crops in our farms, or the increased uses in industry, remain immeasurable. It is important therefore, to not that depletion of this commodity either through contamination, or careless use results in serious consequences.

Water is considered polluted if some substances or condition is present to such a degree that the water cannot be used for a specific purpose. Olaniran (1995) defined water pollution to be the presence of excessive amounts of a hazard (pollutants) in water in such a way that it is no long suitable for drinking, bathing, cooking or other uses. Pollution is the introduction of a contamination into the environment. It is created by industrial and commercial waster, agricultural practices, everyday human activities and most notably, models of transportation. No matter where you go and what you do, there are remnants earth’s environmental and its inhabitants in many ways.

  • The three main types of pollution are:
  • Land Pollution, Air Pollution and Water Pollution. 


  • (i) Sewage leakages
  • (ii) High population density
  • (iii) oil spillage
  • (iv) Menace of Nipa palm and water hyacinth
  • (v) Industrial waste dumped into our waters
  • (vi) Pollution of ground water through drilling activities
  • (vii) Flooding during rainy season which carries waste deposits into our waters.
  • Water pollution is generally induced by humans. It results from actions of humans carried on to better self. These could be treated under the various activities that man engages in, that lead to pollution. The growth of human population, industrial and agricultural practices is the major causes of pollution

Human activities 

  • Water pollution becomes worse as a result of overcrowding in urban areas. Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes are the major pollutants of agnostic habitats. Sewage is the biggest pollutant of fresh water when discharged into them. Sewage is the waterborne waster of society and the discharge of untreated sewage into a river is very enormous and unhealthy.
  • The striking consequence is a substantial and immediate drop in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. This happens because organic matter stimulates decomposers especially bacteria which break down suspended solids in the sewage. As they respire, the decomposers use up dissolved oxygen (O2) and the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) reduces. The flora and fauna of the rivers experience change and reduction in number due to death by suffocation.

Factors of pollution in water bodies

  • Highly polluted rivers have obnoxious smell and contain little or no flora or fauna. Another source of water pollution is the discharge of hot water from cooling engines in the industries. This increases water temperature and lowers the metabolic rate of organisms. This then raises their oxygen demand. The effects of pollution are greater in shallow, enclosed or slow flowing streams. Excess fertilizer, herbicides and pesticides when washed by rain into rivers causes serious danger to life. Excess phosphorus in fertilizer cause serious enteroplication. Apart from fertilizers, detergent are also very toxic to marine life when washed. an effective way for management of water pollution in the water bodies where aquatic life exists is needed.

Risks for life in water bodies due to pollution 

  • Chemical pollutants from distaffs have been found to be animal carcinogens. The dyeing industries in Nigeria (tie and dye) produce chemicals such as zinc sulphate and copper salts which are non-biodegradable, when they are discharged into rivers; they produce devastating effects on aquatic environments. Pollution poses a serious risk to life especially when the water is a source of drinking and for domestic purposes for humans polluted waters are potent agents of diseases such as cholera, typhoid and tuberculosis. A major water pollutants has been oil spilled in large quantities from tankers of broken oil pipes from oil industries which kills sea weeds, mollusks, marine birds, crustaceans, fishes and other sea organisms that serve as food for humans.
  • This leads to calcium deficiencies in our diet. Some insecticides like DDT are particularly dangerous when allowed into bodies of water because its concentration increases along the food chain. Oysters for an example can accumulate DDT to a concentration. 70,000 times that of DDT in sea water. The effects of water pollution in some areas has been to an extent of irreversibly changing aquatic ecosystems.
  • This is dangerous to plants and animals including humans. Since water pollution has direct consequences on human well beings, an effective teaching strategy in the formal education sector is essential for a better understanding so as to develop the right attitude towards water. This is why the guided discovery approach is a teaching strategy which when adequately utilized and combined with other methods of science teaching will leave lasting impression on the learner as well as help him solve the problems of his immediate environment.
Duel effect of water pollution 
  • Water pollution has a duel effect on nature. It has negative effects on the living and also on the environment. The effects of pollution on human beings and aquatic communities are many and varied. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indians children’s die of diarrhea every day and so many other countries too. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access of safe drinking water.
  • Definitely with all these, we can expect that there is going to be a reduction in productivity. Biomass and diversity of communities are to be expected when large amount of toxic materials are released into the streams, lakes and coastal waters in the ocean. Much of aquatic pollution involves sewage in which organic waste predominate. This waste can increase secondary productivity while altering the character of the aquatic community. Most fishes especially the species desired as food by man are among the sensitive species that disappear with the least intense pollution


  • Water pollution leads to damage to human health. Disease carrying agents such as bacteria and viruses are carried into the surface and groundwater. Drinking water is affected and health hazards result. Direct damage to plants and animals nutrition also affects human health. Plants nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus and other substances that support the growth of aquatic plant life could be in excess causing algal bloom and excessive weed growth. This makes water to have odour, taste and sometimes colour. Ultimately, the ecological balance of a body of water is altered. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil and emission of carbon dioxide cause ocean POLL.
  •  There are many approaches that could be adopted for management of water pollution and its control. It could be through prevention, practice efforts or join a project/program; Regulation and monitoring or engaging in control measures by reducing or minimizing waste. 
  • (i) Wash your car far away from any storm water drains.
  • (ii) Don’t throw trash, chemicals or solvents into sewer drains
  • (iii) inspects your septic system every 3 – 5 years
  • (iv) avoid using pesticides and fertilizers that can run off into water systems
  • (v) sweep your driveway instead of hosing it down
  • (vi) always pump your waste-holding tanks on your boat
  • (vii) use non-toxic cleaning materials.


Water pollution is an environmental problem that is of major concern to us in Nigeria and the world at large. Human contribution to water pollution is enormous by way of defecating; dumping of refuse, industrial wastes and washing of clothes etc. apparently, environmental education is of immense importance to use particularly in schools and should have a place in the school curriculum. In this way they will be less inclined to pollute our waters.


It is pertinent that environmental education is introduced in schools and be made compulsory. Federal, State and Local Government should establish agencies to monitor our environment and equally to be sure that our environment is kept clean and free from refuge dumps. Industrial homes or family should equally inculcate a hygienic environment particularly in their vicinity, according to be adage that says charity begins at home. Our industries should go advance in trying to recycle these wastes instead of dumping them for rain water to sweep these refuse into our rivers and streams making them undrinkable. 

By Mussera tul-hira

My name is Mussera-tul-hira. I am from Sargodha, Pakistan. I have been traveling in search of knowledge and for study purposes. For now, I am at Agriculture University of Faisalabad for M.Phil in Botany. I did my B.S from University of Sargodha. I like studying and revealing nature of plants. Moreover, Pakistan is my most valuable asset. I am directly responsible for its betterment and trying to play my role for a better Pakistan.