The evidence of mantle material on the far side of the moon, a hybrid chip to stimulate artificial general intelligence and potential therapy for treating DNA-mediated autoimmune diseases topped the list.

Chinese scientists have also achieved advances in studies on the light-harvesting system of algae, extending the lifetime of perovskite solar cells, metallic glass for use in hot environments and the unveiling of the African swine fever virus structure.

The other key advances include a discovery of the earliest archaeological site on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the first observation of 3D quantum Hall effect and using a quantum satellite to test quantum mechanics and the gravity theory.

The selection has three rounds. Five leading Chinese science academic journals first recommended 320 sets of research whose results were officially published from December 2018 to November 2019. The ministry then invited experts to shortlist 30 candidates for the final selection.

At last, more than 2,600 scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering and other academic departments voted online for the top 10.

It is the ministry’s 15th annual selection of China’s top 10 advances in science.