The dietary fiber is defined as polymers of carbohydrate having three and more than three monomeric components that help to resistant the endogenous digestive enzymes.
Digestive enzymes which cannot immersed and hydrolyzed in the small intestine, and consisted of these groups:
(1) For example some foods like vegetables, fruits ,cereals and legumes are which have naturally polymers occurring in edible carbohydrate
(2) Food raw materials which consisted edible carbohydrate polymers gained from through chemically, physically and enzymatically methods which proved numerous advantage;
(3) Physiological benefits are proved by synthetic carbohydrate polymers. Dietary fiber definitions are having some major differences, and they are discussed Like some substances and lignin existent in walls of cell are knowing non-carbohydrates which are related to polysaccharides which are the dietary fibers. Carbohydrate monomers are included in less numbers.
Several parameters are present on which dietary fibers are classified, consisting of food source, chemically structures, solubility of water, their viscidity and also the fermenability. Dietary fibers which are further sub grouped in the starch resistant, oligosaccharides resistant, polysaccharides and into soluble and insoluble structures.
Hemi-cellulose and cellulose which are less soluble which kept the effect of fecal bulking and they will reach the in colon and not digested or slowly digested by microbes of gut. Fecal bulking effect does not contribute by soluble dietary fibers and which are fermented through the bacteria of gut and then provide the compounds for example short-chain fatty acids. In compare to resistant oligosaccharides are soluble than Non Starch polysaccharides which specially compounds have larger molecular weight for example gum guar, pectin’s and B-glycan’s, are gelatinous, means which capable to make a type of gel structure within the human tract which helps in less glucose and lipids absorption which effect human intestinal tract.
Many sources of food like cereals, vegetables, nuts, fruits, seeds and legumes are rich in many soluble and insoluble dietary fiber which have different quantities. All though, same food kinds do not have the all types of dietary fibers. Only starchy foods like legumes ,tubers and cereals and un ripened fruits for example green bananas are only consist of RS, while some vegetables and fruits have large amount of pectin’s, in cereals two main components are included b-glycan’s and arabinoxylans. However, a variety of plant origin food products consist of dietary fibers which utilization is less in Western countries.
Fortification is a technique used in food industries to extract or synthesize carbohydrates which are used in supplementation thus it is policy upturn fiber use. On commercially basis a variety of oligosaccharides and carbohydrates are present in market.
‘‘Prebiotics’’ compounds are considered very important which are present in these products, the evidence that these compounds promote the health by introducing some more advantageous microbes’ communities in human gut. As we describe above, all these dietary fibers will persuade exact microbial composition because of diligent relations, along with competitive interactions help to contribute in health improvements. In compare, the appliances choosy consumption of the carbohydrate does not contribute as much to health.
Importance of Dietary Fibers:
Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal cancer (CRC)
The inflammatory bowel disease is growing day by day in most countries, and the use of junk diets and lose of the gut bacterial population, particularly decline in bacteria which produce butyrate, which be noted to enhance inflammatory bowel disease incidence.
Less intake of dietary fiber is directly related to increasing prevalence disease of Crohn’s.
The protective effect of fibers may also be increasing cercal short chain fatty acids levels, particularly butyrate, which have properties of anti-inflammatory. IBD can also lead cause of CRC which are known as the third common cancer.
Colorectal cancer is caused due to hereditary and ecological reasons like physical activities, smoking, butyrate-producing bacteria and diet habits are less numbers of Colorectal cancer patients as comparison to fit persons. Less intake of dietary fiber is correlated with increasing prevalence of Colorectal cancer. Therefore, diets less in amount of fats and higher in amount of dietary fiber consisting fruits, vegetables and cereal products which are approved by the FDA good to health and power full decline in developing some cancer types. In research, enhancing of dietary fibers intake in America and Africa totally altered microbial populations.
The Immune System:
Immune system development and the maturation is due to healthy gut microbes. Through one mechanism which have SCFAs, which are known as promoting the production T cells of regulatory colonic in a different way as also through prompting histone H3 acetylation. Consequently, Higher fiber intake during the stage of lactating and stage of pregnancy moderate micro environment and thymic both prompted auto immune system, an element appeared thymus, the main lymphoid tissue, those are very important for development of T cells.
The dietary fiber intakes increasing the level of butyrate in blood of young one.In compare, diet which have high fat promote thymic premature involution which show less apoptosis T cell populations and thymocyte which are developing are increasing.
Some phenotypes aid to describe decline in risk of cancer. People with obesity have promoted thymic aging and change the primary type of lymphoid tissue structure. Taken all to gather, All the explanations highlight the importance of short chain fatty acids in modifying and sustaining the normal working of the immune system.
Fiber Intake Beneficial Effect:
Asthma and Lung Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD):
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and dietary fibers are not only important as local and also have effect on lung physiology. Persons which are bearing chronic asthma used diet which have high amount fat and less amount of dietary fibers(DFs)as comparison with fit person. Correspondingly, an inverse relationship is explained by study among fibers of cereal consumption and hazard of COPD.
Diabetes and Obesity:
Obesity is the major issue which faced by both developing and industrialized countries. The obesity is increased due to many elements for example specific diet and different routine and is also related with less microbial population, which may show the less consumption of dietary fiber. Correspondingly, higher fiber consumption is related to increasing gut microbial population and it is a good source to less the weight gain. Fermentable fibers also have advantageous control on obesity.
Obesity is also related with a major disease known as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). In compare to Type 2 Diabetes and obesity are linked through reducing the numbers dietary fiber degrading bacteria. Therefore, diets which high amount of glucose (higher in the digest able starch and lower in dietary fiber) which are linked to increasing hazard of diabetes. The fibers which soluble, for example, long chain insulin and oligo fructose improved the human gut symbiosis, lower weight of body and helps to lower the inflammation, and better the glucose metabolism, which are good source of lessened intestinal permeability and finish the toxemia. Additionally, barley bread which are bigger source of glycan’s which helps to improve the glucose metabolism. Thus, it is concluding that obesity is caused due to less consumption dietary fiber.
Dietary Fiber Quantity Utilization:
In preventing chronic inflammatory diseases in humans, dietary fibers play major role which are studied many times in past years. Research done on models of animals which results show high effect, however used of greater quantity of dietary fibers as comparison to quantity used by human experimental trials.
Hence, dietary fiber amount which cover the requirement of daily recommendation is 30 g per day is less the dietary fiber quantities taken. The relation of symbiosis between both humans and bacterial microbes are established. Developing countries which human populations taken dietary fiber quantities higher than 50 grams per day, for example rural of Ugandans and rural of south Africa both are recognized as 710 Cell Host & Microbe which major source of free from diseases of inflammation.
Current studies suggest daily dietary fiber quantities higher than 50 grams to attain good health which are related dietary fiber and consequently, the human being which consume higher than 50 grams per day of dietary fiber saw momentous enhancements in health improvement. Although, higher quantity of dietary fibers will difficult to consume on daily basis products of foods, though consumed through fiber supplements which are supplied by food supply which dietary fiber sources.
There are many problems that current humans may not consumes such high amount of dietary fiber as its consume can cause many unfavorable negative effects for example constipation, diarrhea, bloating, stomachaches and flatulence may also hazard for human with syndrome of irritable bowel. Some current researches are used model of animals propose intake of dietary fiber and his derivation which hold adverse effect on health of humans.
Conclusion, dietary fibers consider be very important compounds which reserve gut ecology, particularly maintaining macro nutrients and host physiology. Dietary fibers, can be obtained through both extracted and purified food and also modified or synthesized. In conclusion, a well understanding of diet-microbiota relations helps to maintain a personal nutrition which prevent from the chronic inflammatory diseases.Microbial population present in the gastro intestinal tract show major role in controlling diseases. A well understanding is needed for those factors which food factors provide the substrates for the microbial germinations. Chiefly, it helps to produce power full germination of microbes of gut.
These microbe’s communities help in the prevention of diseases and conditions which related to stomach and colon. In some conditions, life style and environmental issues, like genetic makeup and daily food diet which helps grow microbial populations.
The probiotics uses and other policies required to increase these microbial populations. These gut microbial populations take part in the development of human immune system. If the human immune system is stronger, it will fight against diseases and conditions. Dietary fibers are very necessary part of food and its very compulsory to full fill the needs of these fibers.
Food Science and Technology