role in control of zoonotic diseases

One Health is global concept indicating animals, human health and their environment. These three have complex relationship and naturally linked in causing diseases among animals and humans. 

role in control of zoonotic diseases

The study of biology of pathogens along with their transmission through environment has been carried out in many countries which helped to deign control strategies against many pathogens. Now One Health is dealing with global problems followed by global solution.

Significance of One Health

One Health is a significant effort of different disciplines that are working together locally, nationally, and globally to ensure health for people, animals, and for sound environment. These are interconnected with each other to make a triad.

How One Health concept began

The concepts of One Health began in the late 19th and 20th centuries with the contribution of Rodulf Virchow, known as “Father of comparative medicine, cellular pathology and veterinary pathology” and Willian Oster, known as “Father of Modern Medicine”.

They played an important role in promoting “One Health”. The best example of noticeable diseases through one health are deadly emerging zoonotic diseases like West Nile virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and others, found raised in the late 20th, and more significant in early 21st century.

 Role of One Health in control of diseases

One Health initiates biomedical research on emerging infectious viral diseases, vector-borne diseases and zonooses with the support of trained health professionals and institutional policies that significantly encourage programing of One Health, the human, animal and environment interface.

According to the One Health Initiative, One Health approach has been followed biomedical researches, increase public health efficacy by expanding scientific knowledge, promoting general health measures and clinical care.

Vectors and Resevoir

As world’s population has been increasing day by day and domestic animals including livestock invading in wildlife habitats. So many new diseases are emerging in animals and humans. It was discussed in a review article on “Zonoones and One health” that bats are the reservoir of most infectious vectors causing zoonotic diseases. Bats are the most important reservoir and vectors like Lyssa, Hindra, Nipha viruses and coronaviruses, Ebola virus, Marburg viruses.

Programming against zoonotic diseases

There are multiple national and international organizations or government agencies that worked on One Health concept. Many recent and previous diseases caused by parasites and vectors have been found zoonotic in nature, for example African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).

In case of humans, parasitic zonooses like, African Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis, Balantidiasis, Fascioliasis, Opisthorchiasis, Clonorchiasis and others have been reported which are most likely transmitted from animals through vectors or water. There were a lot of challenges to control sudden outbreaks, however, One Health teams organized vaccination program and promoted the facilities of medicines in particular area to save lives of human as well as animal health.

Ayesha Ahmed, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Fatima Yasin,

Muhammad Shafi Hasni, Muhammad Nadeem

Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

By Shafi hasni

PhD Scholar