Role of botanical garden for plant species conservation

Botanical garden plays an important role in raising public awareness about threats to plant diversity and the consequences of biodiversity loss on human well-being.

View of Botanical Rock Garden Gate at PMNH

For the past 400 year botanic garden has helped as the plant introduction centers playing a major role in the spread of germplasm for agriculture, forestry, economic and ornamental plant around the world with the establishing of agriculture station in the early twentieth century the role of botanical garden is important. Botanical garden play key role in plant conservation. Botanical garden play essential role in Situ conservation.It is place of collection of living plants grown for educational, recreational, economic medicinal scientific purpose.in botanical garden there is collection of plants that are named and labeled precisely and documented in plant record data base.In botanical garden there is identity of unknown plants. Botanical gardens conservation International the world largest plant conservation network and the lead organization for the global strategy on  plant conservation defines  botanic yard as organizations holding recorded collection of living plants for the objective of clinical research. Botanic yard give expertise as well as experience in plant taxonomy Cultivation, biodiversity, supply, conservation biology, reconstruction ecology as well as ethnobotany.

Botanical garden is collection of plants at global scale. It conserve all type of diversity in botanical garden there is always a need for improvement. More plants especially tropical plants are need to be cultivated. More attention can be given to natural diversity rather than weeds or cultivar. Only 5 percent collection include non-vascular plants like Mosses and Liverworts. This is alarming situation for all. However, botanical garden are valuable more than their beauty. Botanic garden are important for aesthetic, social, economic, cultural and scientific and for other important purpose. Botanical garden conduct research which has socio-economic impact locally and globally.it provide habitat to large number of species. Botanical  garden contain large number of exotic or introduced species like eucalyptus  and conocrispus in past  botanical garden  has many historical heritage  but now a days there is great focus on conserving the species.

Global strategies for plant conservation

Botanic yards have actually communally built up centuries of sources as well as abilities individual that currently revenues they efficiency a vital component in plant upkeep as well as monitoring. Many of these achievements add to ex-situ upkeep, yet botanic yards additionally play a primary function in sitting maintenance. Botanical yard need to comply with the worldwide policies as well as guideline such as convention on biological diversity and convention on global sell jeopardized varieties of wild animals as well as vegetation. These rules are necessary to avoid the rapid loss of biodiversity.There is research and scientific management in botanical garden.In botanical garden there is maintained of plant diversity. These strategies save the world plant species and focus how the plant species save life on earth. There is a substantial variety in the dimension as well as kinds of botanic yard in all locations of the biosphere, functioning made up in facilities to share proof as well as effectiveness. Botanic garden follow the following the strategies that are used for conservation of ecological plant biodiversity in the an ecosystem

Seed bank

Seed bank and also collection of living plants permit varieties to be shielded. Plants have to be meticulously accumulated saved to assure optimal hereditary variety is preserved as well as research study is needed to establish the most effective method to saving such varieties.

Horticulture

Cultivation permit us to expand plant that may be shed in nature, it implies their plant variety could be preserved in the yard. Cultivation as well as farming abilities permit us to expand plants that may be shed in nature, which indicates that varieties diversity could be preserved in the yards, yet additionally enables us to think about reconstruction as well as recovery of abject environments.

Education

Education in botanic garden come in various way.Education is a power of botanical gardens that   allow them to communicate the importance of conserving plant. School programmed family programs, children summer trip, family trip, field trip, teacher training and development programs and student internship programs are held in botanical garden.

Living collections

Living collections of plants accumulate varieties under numerous groups, to preserve a living shop of hereditary variety that could sustain lots of tasks in preservation as well as research. Linking plants with the wellness of individuals, as well as aiding preserve aboriginal as well as neighborhood expertise, to urge the lasting use plant sources for the advantage of all, as component of lasting advancement.

Research and development

Botanical garden are so important for research purpose.Research that can be conducted in botanical garden depend upon the available resource. Different project in research can be conducted through affiliation with universities, independent researchers, NGOS, government project and through local and national projects.

Climate impacts

R & d into grow taxonomy as well as genetics, phyto-chemistry, valuable residential properties and different information that can be collected through plant and give us information how plant species can withstand degraded and changing environment especially different threats by climate change. Herbarium can be collected hundreds of year ago and have significance importance for ecologist,geographers, historians and scientist. Response of plant to climate change can be determined by examine preserved specimens in old herbarium by comparing with present herbarium.

 Human well-being linkages

Botanical garden has great aesthetic value .it is source of pleasure.Botanical garden has great impact on human well-being. It improve nutrition of individual and help to improving health.Botanic gardens worldwide reach over 200 million people each year and represent a huge opportunity for providing informal education to a broad spectrum of society about the crucial role of plants in supporting ecosystem and human health. Programs targeting specific audiences such as children, adults and professional educators should continue to be developed and advanced. Botanic gardens play an important role in raising public awareness about threats to plant diversity and the consequences of biodiversity loss on human well-being.

Perseverance of Botanical garden

Numerous collections of authorizations have actually been assembled worrying their preservation, consisting of the facility of systems for varieties inventorying and also standing surveillance, as well as the requirement for worked with preservation technique based upon both sitting as well as ex-spouse situ approaches. For medical plants with significantly restricted products, lasting use wild sources could be a reliable preservation choice. In China as well as South Africa, the scenario is specifically essential as a result of the high needs of huge populaces.

  • The main perseverance of botanical garden  is to conserve plant species e.g. cedrus deodara, Dalbergia sissoo
  • Without plant there is no life, no energy as our survival depend upon the plants.
  • Due to increasing pressure of human population Deforestation, Habitat destruction, Habitat exploitation, Hunting, Habitat fragmentation, two third of the world plant species are near to extinction.
  • Botanical garden play vital role to conserve the all types of plants.
  • Research can be conducted easily in botanical garden.

Major botanical gardens in Pakistan

  • Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan
  • Governor’s House, Lahore
  • Danishmandan Botanic Garden, Lahore
  • Part of Gatwala Wildlife Park, Faisalabad
  • Govt. Zamindar College, Gujrat
  • Government College University Botanic Garden of GCU, Lahore
  • University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore
  • Forman Christian College Botanic Garden, Lahore
  • National Herbarium, Islamabad
  • Pakistan Forest Institute of Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar
  • Karachi University Botanic Garden of Karachi University, Karachi
  • Lahore Botanical Gardens, Lahore
  • Botanical Garden of Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
  • University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • University of Peshawar, Peshawar
  • Quaid-i-Azam University , Islamabad
  • Living plants museum of medicinal plants, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar

About Authors:
Zarghoona Naz1*, Shamim Umer2, RashidaParveen3 and Arshad Ali3.
1Agro-Climatology Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
2Ecological lab, Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
3Postgraduate Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

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