The loss of soil fertility is an important problem in large areas that have been utilized for agricultural production. Enhanced concentration, intensification and specialization of crop and livestock production without sufficient consideration of the natural site-specific soil and climate conditions caused pronounced degradation and partly irreversible damage of the soil including such processes as soil compaction, water and wind erosion, water logging, chemical degradation and humus loss.
Water pollution has become a growing concern over the last century as more and more waste is being disposed of in our oceans, rivers and lakes. This increase in pollution is harming our food supplies, drinking water and environment. Make the soil unhealthy and soil structure damage or over excess any chemical element both macro element and micro elements nutrients for crops.
Soil quality is determined by a number of factors, all of which affect fertility. A good soil will sustain the growth of the required crops to a high standard, without the need for excessive nutrient enhancements or artificial fertilizer.
We need to understand what has underpinned urbanization in the past and how this is changing and might change in the future to be able to consider its implications for agriculture and food production. Urbanization brings major changes in demand for agricultural products both from increases in urban populations and from changes in their diets and demands. This has brought and continues to bring major changes in how demands are met and in the farmers, companies, corporations, and local and national economies who benefit (and who lose out). It can also bring major challenges for urban and rural food security.
Water way is changing because of more building, it makes some areas no water but some become flooded. Flooding in urban areas can be caused by flash floods, or coastal floods, or river floods, but there is also a specific flood type that is called urban flooding.
Urban flooding is specific in the fact that the cause is a lack of drainage in an urban area. As there is little open soil that can be used for water storage nearly all the precipitation needs to be transport to surface water or the sewage system. High intensity rainfall can cause flooding when the city sewage system and draining canals do not have the necessary capacity to drain away the amounts of rain that are falling. Water may even enter the sewage system in one place and then get deposited somewhere else in the city on the streets.
The success of farming business depends in large part on the quality of soil. This is why soil improvement is such an important concern for farmers. Not all soil types are suitable for farming. We are lucky to have access to some of the best crop growing soils in the world.
Therefor the soil fertility release management is very important for long sustainable agriculture and green environment. Farmer can get benefit a lot because of the healthy soil. The crop can produce more high yield and better quality and make the life around the world better.
Application of organic manures for maintenance of soil at high fertility level is essential. Organic manures improve physical, chemical as well as biological properties of soil. Organic matter (pool of nutrients) in the soil will play important role in soil like increasing water holding capacity of soil, increasing CEC soil and this will prevent leaching of nutrient through soil profile as well as increasing soil microorganisms. Organisms occur wherever organic matter occurs. For example, because of farmers do not apply enough organic matter in the soil, the nutrients that could be up taken by plants are leached through soil profile and plant suffer from lacking nutrients especially nitrogenous and phosphorous, hence low agriculture output arises. Organic manures @ 20 to 25 ton/ha can be applied in different forms like farm yard manure/ compost/ dung manure. Press mud can also be used as an organic manure @ 5 ton/ha particularly useful in saline alkali soils. Sugarcane trash can be used as a mulch and sprayed with 80 kg urea, 100 kg Single Super Phosphate and 10 kg decomposing culture/ha for better decomposition. Sugarcane trash can also be incorporated while making organic manure along with press mud and use of earthworms for preparing vermicomposting.
Besides social community will be able to get potable water for using in their daily life. Also, courtesy of having fertile soil, agriculture production will increase more and country economy will rise due to more agro-processing industries for value chain management as well as. Agriculture helps urban area to deal with waste. This will create more jobs for people and the lives of all populations will completely be improved.
M.Sc. (Hons.) Agriculture/Agronomy
MNS University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan