Combined cultivation of rice and fish is recognized as paddy-cum- fish culture or rizipisci-culture.

This method is as old as rice cultivation itself. However, most people of developing countries are not well aware on this culture.


It is said that fish culture in rice fields was launch into South-East Asia from India about 1500

years ago, where presently it is the best developed, around 1900 this type of fish culture was

begun in Madagascar. Towards the end of 19th century fish culture in rice fields was practiced in

Italy. It has since spread to U.S.A. (Arkansas). Rice-cum- fish culture is well organized in other

paddy (rice) growing countries, especially in Taiwan and Japan.

Success stories

1. China has a very long history of aquaculture. The earliest aquaculture started some thousand

years ago in China. Chinese rice-fish culture farming has catalogued top most in the world

two decades due to fast and steady build out in the past three decades. Rice -fish farming has

been providing a very important source of animal protein for Chinese people, recently it is

guessed at 25 kg per capita of aquatic products, considering for about 70% of total available

products supply for Chinese people. As it is an important subsector of agriculture rice-fish

culture contribute approximately 2% of the national GDP.

2. In the Philippines rice-fish farms yielded a 27% higher net return with fish as compared to a

single crop of rice. It is possible to get a three-fold increase in profitability of rice farming by

culturing fish as well as rice.

3. In Bangladesh the returns from this aquaculture was over 50% greater than only rice. It is due

to the lower mean costs of rice cultivation and higher rice yields in addition to the fish yield

from integrated cultivation.

Merits of Rice-Fish Culture

 It is a low risk technology.

 Aquaculture saves water.

 Rice-fish culture provides additional food and income by diversifying farm activities and

increasing yields of both the rice and fish crops

 Fish feed on rice pests, thus reducing pest pressure

 Balanced application of nitrogen between rice and fish resulted in 24% less inorganic

fertilizer application and low nitrogen loss into the environment

 Fish provide NO 3…. N as nutrient to rice

 Rice-fish farming is an excellent option to mitigate changing climate as it reduces methane

emission by almost 30% as compared to traditional rice farming

Rice-Fish culture and Pakistan

Pakistan is facing a problem of rapid increase in population growth and scarcity of water. So

Pakistan needs more food to feed people which can only be achieved with efficient use of inputs

especially water. Among leading rice producing countries, Pakistan stands at 4 th position.

However, in Pakistan, people are using a large amount of water in fish pond and this use not in a

sustainable manner. Nevertheless, people can get dual benefits by culturing fish is rice fields and

conserve water for future use. So, this aquaculture should be adopted by Pakistani community to

fulfill the need of food for the people.

The Way Forward

An increase in integrated farming of rice and fish is possible and would benefit farmers,

consumers and the environment worldwide. Several organizations, active in global policies for

food production and/or environmental sustainability, have become aware of this, and key

policymakers have formulated and disseminated relevant recommendations to governments,

institutions and stakeholders. This is encouraging and, given the benefits of rice-fish farming, it

is important to give priority to its continued promotion.

The authors are research scholar at Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture,


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