Fungi singular fungus, a group of eukaryotic, non-phototrophic organism with

rigid cell wall, that includes mushrooms, molds and yeasts. Fungi absorb

nutrients from dead or living organic matter, have cell walls made up of

chitin, and store surplus energy as a glycogen.

The kingdom fungi contains four phyla: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.

A filamentous thallus is a vegetative mycelium that is produced by fungi,

composed of hyphae that branch and extend via tip elongation. Some groups of

fungi like yeast consists only of individual cells. Hyphae (singular, hypha) are tube-like

filaments. Hyphae has two types, septate and non-septate hyphae. Septate hyphae divide into the

components not into the cells, nuclear material like cytoplasm moves through holes within

components in some groups .Non-septate hyphae is a single multinucleate cells that lack septa.

Septa is cross walls who separating nuclei.

Mycorrhizae known as root fungi, a symbiotic association formed between a fungus and the

roots of a vascular plants. In these associations, the fungi are actually cohesive into the both

physical and biological structure of the root. The fungi colonize the living root tissue during

active plant growth. Ectomycorrhizae are a type of mycorrhizae that procedure a dense sheath

around the physical structure of plant roots, from which the hyphae grow; in

endomycorrhizae, mycelium is entrenched within the root tissue, not forming a sheath around the

root system. In case of endomycorrhizae, mycelium is embedded within the root tissues. It is

opposite to forming a dense sheath around the root system.

A symbiotic relationship of mycorrhizae and plant roots enhances crop roots system. Most plants

form symbiotic relationships called mycorrhizae with fungi that integrate into the plantand#39;s root.

Fungus tendrils provides almost 70% to 100% phosphate directly to the plant though both

ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal association, huge mineral boost which may ultimately

reduce the need for farmers to saturate crop fields with phosphate fertilizer. It also somewhat

ensure maximum yield. Mycorrhizal fungi could one day act as a bio-fertilizer who will enhance

fertility of the soil, ultimately yields will be high without using any external fertilizer.

New research by mycologists has found significant consequences from symbiotic association

between soil fungus and plant roots, resulting in changes the genetic expression of resulting crop.

1Saqib Mushtaq

Eliciting additional plant root growth enlarges the root system that enables the plant to absorb

more and more nutrients from the soil.

A new research shows that rice crop can be used as a model for cereal crops, when its root

system examine at a molecular level. Cereal root and#39;architectureand#39; involves a few big, thickset roots

called crown roots that act as a framework from which all the smaller, lateral roots spread out

into the different layers of soil, which contain the various nutrients.

Phosphate is a very significant element of the fertilizers that driven the Green Revolution in

middle of the 20th century that made it potential then for agriculture to keep up with the growing

global population. In most tropical soils plants have enormous difficulty in obtaining phosphate

and so farmers have to spend a huge amount of money on phosphate fertilizer. Farmers have to

supplement much more fertilizer than in temperate regions and a very large amount of the cost to

produce food is the cost of phosphate.

Phosphate assets are being rapidly reduced day by day. Increasing demand for the nutrient is

driving up prices. Now some countries are storing phosphate to feed their people in the future.

Fungi is helping to greatly increase food-production for the growing needs of the planet without

the need for enormous amounts of fertilizers due to symbiotic association between mycorrhizal

fungi and physical structure of the plant roots. So, fungus enhances physical and biological

structure of the plant roots and could one day be used as bio-fertilizer.

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