Quality Components Of Edible Plant Oil And Health Perspectives

Edible oil is a fatty acid liquid used for cooking food, extracted from plant seeds, pulps, and fruits of certain plants.

Quality Components Of Edible Plant Oil And Health Perspectives

Edible oil is a fatty acid liquid used for cooking food, extracted from plant seeds, pulps, and fruits of certain plants. Oils provide diversified flavors to food, and they may change the taste, color, and fragrance of food.

As edible plant oil occupy vital place in our diet, so monitoring its quality parameters is essential because when extracting, processing, transporting, and storing edible oil, many anti-nutrient components are added which negatively impact our bodies.

96% of Eatable oils are made up of triglycerides, which are made up of different fatty acids. They are classified as saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The human body can synthesize required monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, and they are categorized as nonessential fatty acids.

On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linolenic acid and linoleic acid are supplemented through food and categorized as essential fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are involved in the maintenance of physiological functions of cells, reduce cholesterol levels and blood viscosity, increase the activity of brain cells, and enhance memory.

Edible plant oil contain many trace elements that play a significant role in the human body. for example, Mn, Zn, and Cu are significant role players in the development and function of different tissues and organs like hair, nails, blood, bone, liver, brain, and heart.

Alpha tocopherols found in sunflower seed oils and corn oils are vasodilators and anticoagulants. Phytosterols found in corn oils, sunflower oils, and rapeseed oils have inhibitory effects in cholesterol absorption, cardiovascular diseases, and cervical cancer with strong anti-inflammatory effects.

Peroxides formed during oxidation are hazardous to human health and are quantified by peroxide value. It is determined by utilizing various methods. Lower PV is preferred, but not always.

Free fatty acids result from the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides. These are referred to free as they don’t form ester bonds to form glycerol. FFA is present in small amounts in non-refined natural forms of crude oils. Oils with higher FFA are prone to oxidative deterioration and off-flavoring, and they also increase the smoke point of the oil.

An important factor for determining the value of edible oils is their color. During oil extraction coloring, pigments may also be extracted, so their removal is done by bleaching. These pigments could be chlorophyll related and can lead to oxidation in the presence of light. The yellow-gold color is recommended by consumers.

A high iodine number in oil indicates a higher degree of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is desirable regarding human health. A low iodine number means low quality.

Higher triacylglycerol results in a higher saponification number that indicates a high ester value. It is a measure of suitability for oil making.

Premium oil is healthier than other oil. Sunflower is known to be a premium oil carrying high unsaturated fatty acids and low linolenic acids.

It is very lighter in weight and has good taste and smell. Due to different chemical compositions, sunflower and olive oil is considered premium oil. Produce low smoke, and have a low linolenic acid component, this premium oil cover 13% of production over edible oil.