Doctors are still learning about the short and long-term effects of COVID-19 on human body.

By : Saadia Munir, Dr.H.U.Khan,  Aamir Hussain.

It begins with basic flu symptoms for some people. However, it has the potential to harm your lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, intestine and even your brain in the long run. The virus usually comes into contact with you when a nearby infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, releasing droplets into the air. It easily spreads between people within 6 feet of each other. Even if a person is not sick, an infected person can spread these droplets.The first symptoms that typically appear include a fever, headache, sore throat, and dry cough. But what you’ll feel can vary widely in this early stage. You may also have:
●    Shortness of breath
●    Chills, fever, body aches
●    Loss of sense of smell or taste
●    Unusual tiredness 
●    Stuffy or runny nose 
●    Nausea or diarrhea


Respiratory Infection.

If your immune system is unable to control COVID-19 within the first week, the virus may spread to your lungs. It attacks the cells that line them there. Fluid and mucus build up, making it more difficult for oxygen to reach your bloodstream. Breathing becomes difficult. This is a case of pneumonia. The majority of people recover in a week or two, but it can take longer in other cases.



COVID-19 pneumonia worsens quickly in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and your body’s response may cause further harm to your lungs. The tiny, delicate air sacs that transport oxygen to your blood (called alveoli) begin to fill with muck. Large areas of your lung may appear to be devoid of air on X-rays and CT images. Your blood oxygen levels drop dangerously low, and you’ll almost certainly require a ventilator to breathe.

Heart Problems.


Doctors have found a number of heart problems in COVID-19 patients, particularly those who are critically unwell. These are some of them:

Arrhythmia. A rapid or skipping heart

Cardiomyopathy. Thickened, rigid cardiac tissue makes your heart weaker.

Acute myocardial infarction. Troponin is a protein that your body produces in large amounts. When your heart is damaged, this is what happens.

Shock. When your heart can’t pump enough blood to keep up with your body’s needs.

Brain-Related Problems.

COVID-19 appears to cause problems with your nervous system as well, including seizures. They can be due to swelling in the brain or inflammation of your central nervous system. Other symptoms that could be linked to your brain include:
●    Loss of consciousness
●    Loss of sense of smell
●    Stroke 

Liver Issues.

Up to half of the people in the hospital for COVID-19 have enzyme levels in their blood that signal liver damage. It may not be the virus itself that causes it. Medication or an overworked immune system can cause this, too.

Kidney Damage.

This is typical in COVID-19 patients who are critically unwell. Medication, a malfunctioning immune system, low blood pressure, and pre-existing illnesses can all contribute to disorder kidney.

Gastro intestinal Track. 

The new coronavirus isn’t just attacking the lungs: New research shows it’s causing harm to the gastrointestinal tract, can damage .

No Symptoms?


According to certain research, up to 40% of patients with COVID-19 are “asymptomatic.” This means they don’t feel ill or show any signs of illness. However, the infection can still cause harm to your health. Lung damage, including “ground-glass opacities,” a common lung lesion in persons with COVID-19, can be shown on X-rays and CT scans of some people who have no symptoms.

Authors: Saadia Munir, Dr.H.U.Khan,  Aamir Hussain.

     Botanical Science Division. Pakistan Museum Of Natural History,44000, Islamabad.