Overview Of Mycotoxins And Modular System To Deactivate Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins are the well-known food poison leads to prominent harm to both animal and human health.

By Dr. Maria Jamil, Dr. Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Dr. Aisha Khatoon

Mycotoxins are toxic substances which may contaminate various food with Genotoxic, teratogenic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and hepatotoxic effects. Worldwidly, to reduce mycotoxin adulteration in food commodities is a major concern in various countries that leads to develop various preventive strategies.  

Types of Mycotoxins and their Health Effects

Type of Fungi

Fungal species

Types of mycotoxins

Health Effects

Aspergillus species

A.    flavus

Aflatoxin B1

Aflatoxin B2

Aflatoxin G1 Aflatoxin G2 Aflatoxin M1 Aflatoxin M2

immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic

Penicillium species

p. verrucosum

Ochratoxin A Ochratoxin B Ochratoxin C Ochratoxin TA

immunosuppressive, mild liver damage, excessive nephrotoxicity

F. graminearum

α-Zearalenol, Oestradiol

Abortion, atrophy of testis and ovaries, teratogenic and estrogenic effects

F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides

T-2, HT-2 toxin, Diacetocripenol, Neosolaniol

immunosuppressive, abdominal distress and diarrhea

Fusarium species

F. porotrichioids, F. poae

Deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl DON, trichothecenes,  Nivalenol, Fusarenon-x

immunosuppression, gastroentritis

Ergot Alkaloids

Claveceps purpurea

Ergotoxin, ergometrine, ergotoxin (lysergol, ergine, lysergic acid)

immunosuppression, convulsion


clavaceps fusiformis


immunosuppression, enteroergotism




Health Effects





Gram negative


pyrogenic, mastitis, dermatitis, laminitis, endometritis and immunosuppressive,


Effects of mycotoxins in poultry:

Ochratoxin A:

  • Kidney damage
  • Excessi9ve water intake

T-2 and DON:

  • Lesions on gizzard
  • Reduced feed intake
  • Feed refusal

Aflatoxin, T-2, DAS and DON:

  • Inflammation of oral cavity and mucous membrane
  • Dermal and oral lesions

Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, T-2, DON and Zerealenone:

  • Creamy yolk
  • Bloody spot on breast muscles
  • Decreased egg shell quality
  • Mycotoxins residues in poultry products

Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, T-2, DON and DAS:

  • Fatty liver
  • Immunosuppression
  • Impaired feathering

Zearalenone, DON, DAS and T-2:

  • Reduced hatchability
  • Decreased egg production
  • Delayed sexual maturity
  • Ovarian cysts

5 Modules for mycotoxins prevention:


Synergistic blends of minerals:

For selective adsorption of mycotoxins synergistic blends of minerals are activated and processed. Mycotoxins with specifically located polar functional groups are deactivated because of their specific fixation to the adsorbing components.

The patented activation process of the adsorbing surface and the specific adapted pore size of the mineral particles with the stable and the selective binding capacity.

2-Enzymatic Degradation:

Biological Constituent:

Biological constituents are capable of degrading the molecular structure of Fusarium toxins by breakup the particular functional groups. The metabolites of these reactions are non-toxic and completely harmless to the organism.

As many mycotoxins are not adsorbs firmly enough that has been complemented with a biological constituents that is capable of degrading these mycotoxins by breaking up particular functional groups.

Hydrolysis of the ester compound occurring in Zearalenone as well as degrading of the 12, 13- epoxy group in trichothecenes lead to non-toxic and completely harmless metabolites.

3-Microbial Proliferation:

BBSH 797:

BBSH 797 this living organism developed and multiplied in the intestinal tract and produces an enzymatic system that bio-transforms mycotoxins into non-toxic metabolites.

BBSH 797 is a microorganism which has the capacity to developed and rapidly multiply in the gastrointestinal tract.

BBSH 797 micro-organism during its growth metabolism produce a specific enzyme that is capable to degrade the functional group of mycotoxin and to deactivate the mycotoxins. Moreover, BBSH 797 by competitive segregation vigorously avoids harmful bacteria settled in gastro-intestinal tract.

BBSH 797 decreases the negative collaborations which enhances the harmful effects of mycotoxins and produces a growth-promoting effect even in the absent of mycotoxins.

4- Phytogenic Activation:

Phytogenic Substances:

A distinctive mixture of phytogenic extracts stabilize the adverse condition due to mycotoxins and other hepatotoxic and inflammatory conditions.

In the liver the Hepato-protective effects of occupying receptor cells with flavonolignans avoids the toxins to enter the liver cell membranes.

Terepenoid complexes decreased the inflammations and secure the mucous membranes of the respiratory systems.

5-Immune supports:

Phytogenic Constituents:

Phytogenic constituents supported the body’s natural immune response and compensate the immunosuppressive effect of the mycotoxins.

Phytogenic constituents modifies the immune responses and increases the metabolic functions.

Moreover, they help to synthesis the ribonucleic acids with conversion and catabolism of amino acids that are the vital factors in the cell multiplications.

Authors Dr. Maria Jamil, Dr. Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Dr. Aisha Khatoon Department of Pathology, Faculty of veterinary science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

By marvi