Soy as a meat replacer

Around the globe mounds of people who cannot consume animal protein due to poor purchasing power and certain are vegetarian who dont like to consume animal proteins due to their religious restrictions. In present scenario, Vegetarian food market lodge a larger-than-ever shelf space and second-largest market share specially in US due to the consumers increasing health concerns and environment awareness. The increase in number of such peoples has also contributed to enduring market progression due to upturn in Vegetarian restaurants. Protein is a macronutrient that the body needs in large amounts for cell repair, immune function and muscle growth. Although soy and meat both rich in dietary protein, they differ greatly in nutritional content. Both comprise of high quality of proteins as they comprehends all of the essential amino acids (building blocks of protein) required by individuals body regularly. Though, soy compromises a nutrient thats the best alternative for meat shortages as texturized vegetable proteins (TVP). Soybean proteins considered the best among other plant proteins due to as: 1) provides a good balance in amino acid composition, since all the essential amino acids are confined, 2) contains physiologically beneficial components which are shown to lower the cholesterol, and reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, 3) has excellent processing ability such as gelling, emulsifying ability and water and oil- holding capacity.

Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP), also recognized as Textured Soy Protein (TSP), soy meat, or soya chunks is a defattedsoy flour product, a by-product of soybean oil. After the extraction of oil from beans the cake remained as by product is rich in protein. It is often used as a meat analogue or meat extender. Its cooking time is very quick and more protein contents as of Meat alternatives that come from soy beans are also complete proteins with nine essential amino acids. It is popular to use in a vegetarian food because TVP can give a fibrous structure in the product, similar in threadlike texture of meat.

TSP is exists in diverse forms e.g. Soy chunks come in the form of regular chunks, mini chunks and granules, and can be used in many ways. The nutritional value is similar to meat in some areas and different in others. A3.5-ounce aiding of soya chunks covers above 54 grams of protein. It is in concentrated form so contains higher quantity as compared to the same serving size of meat and eggs. The recommended daily intake (RDI) of protein is 56 grams for male and 46 grams for Female.

Soybean protein extracted from defatted soy flour (DSF), with the utmost protein content and good bioavailability compared to soy protein concentrate (SPC). Soy also reduces the risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Soybean protein isolates (SPI)the most concentrated form of commercially available soybean protein products. They contain over 90 per cent protein, on a moisture free basis.

Meat analogs made from SPI by twin-screw high moisture extrusion (material is pushed through a die of desired shape and texture) and it has been shown desired texture as of chicken breast and other meat analogs. This process did not show significant effect on change in nutritional value and also on protein digestibility of SPI so act as a quality dietary alternative protein source.

Meat analogues are food products which have similar texture, color, taste and structure as meat. They can be meat substitutes or meat alternatives because they provide a worthy source of protein. Usually meat analogues are made from soy protein but they could also be made from other sources. The main function of meat analogues is to replace meat in the diet and to reduce the burden on natural meat resources. They may also be used as a bulking agent to extend real meat products. Textured vegetable protein (TVP) is a dry food product, usually made from defatted soy flour, from which soluble carbohydrate has been removed, and the residue is textured by spinning or by extrusion. Therefore, protein is the majority composition of TVP which has more than 50 per cent.

There are many health benefits such as protection against heart disease, lower blood cholesterol, reduction the risk of cancer and increasing bone mass. It can be used to reduce formulation cost because it is cheaper than meat. Other attributes such as the ability of retaining water and moisture during cooking, reheating, thawing and freezing, can also be an advantage. TVP are commonly used together to provide the desired quality, in texture, binding ability, desired amount of chewiness, or to make a product firmer or softer.

Normally consumers wants for products of meat substitute perceived as fresh, natural and high quality. Due to the increasing of consumer demand for healthy diets, the concern about rising meat prices, the increasing of the popularity of vegetarianism and the growing of consumer interest in related eating patterns such as the avoidance or reduced consumption of red meat. Therefore, it is of interest to use an alternative source such as the plant protein as the ingredients in human diet.

Meat nugget is one of the prevalent foods for all eternities. It is usually produced from chicken meat, fish or others. It is one type of fried foods which is very common and generally acceptable worldwide that served at almost all fast foods restaurant chains. It is interesting to develop the meat analogue nugget which has the desirable attributes. From the rusty pages of the history, the view is cleared that consumers interested in the meat analogue nugget. The desirable attributes of the developed product should have appearance, texture and flavor similar to the nugget made from real meat. The study also publicized that texture properties were the important attributes that consumer concerns. TVP was designed to be neutral in flavor and pick up the seasonings of the product or recipe its being used in. Its chewy texture is also impressively meat-like. Like other soy products, TVP is a complete and well-absorbed protein. Its usually escorted by lots of preservatives, colorings, and artificial flavours and, as with soy protein isolate and concentrate, its best consumed in moderation.

There is anominous need to further improve the texture of SPI meat analog post-extrusion that could transform to different formats of the product, althoughupholding consumer satisfactorinessconcerning the texture and flavors.

The writers are from the National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

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