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Celiac disease is often interrelated with a multitudinous number of complications besides being atrophy of small intestinal villi. Gluten fraction “glidian” has been traced back as a pathogenic factor and one of the major leading causes of celiac disease (Gujral et al., 2003). Wheat, barley and rye are the major cereal morbific agents for inducing celiac trauma (Carlos et al., 2006). Globally 1-2% population is being affected by celiac disease (Catassi and Yachha, 2009). It may collapse the system or chances of experiencing more other issues like bloating, diarrhea, nausea, headache and abdominal cramping (Sylvia et al., 2006). Furthermore, it may result in inflammation, anemia, infertility and deficiency of essential nutrients. The most glaring complication of celiac disease onset is its immediate inflammation, which makes intestine wall abridged and turns to crimson. This characteristic is termed as “permeable gut”. With instant inflammation, the body becomes anemic as the body is stripped of essential micronutrients bioavailability.
People suffering from this disease, for years, remains undiagnosed. When diagnosed, screening through blood antigen and biopsy is the mandatory step to identify the celiac disease. Blood antigens test is conducted either to check the presence of genes. The bearing of certain antibodies gives the final finding of fact that either patient is celiac or not. Nevertheless, it is not the 100% method for valid diagnosis. Biopsy of the small intestine is the succeeding step to adopt in the diagnosis if the patients report of antibodies shows positive results and symptoms are still running. Biopsy proves conclusive in proving the damage of small intestinal villi. Biopsy results are conclusive than blood tests. Small tissue is taken away from the damaged portion of intestinal villi. Later, the confirmation, gluten free diet for a minimum 6 month interval is recommended by physician followed by a series of biopsy are carried away to check the healing procedure. Beyond scientific progress, medical intervention is still a dream come true for celiac patients. The only viable treatment to avoid complications is strict adherence to gluten free sources in the daily diet (Torbica et al., 2010). Gluten free foods are rather expensive and dear, as gluten free flour, the basic requirement, has 15 % custom duty, 17% sales tax, 3% additional sales tax and 5.5% income tax for the commercial import. Other items include bread, pasta and biscuits have 20% customs duty, 10% regulatory tax, 17% sales tax, 3% additional sales tax and 5.5% income tax. These add up to 55% import value which is also higher from backened due to foreign exchange rates. These add burden on the common man suffering from celiac disease. As a food researcher, many simple, native and petty resources can be manipulated in order to offer a cost efficient and economically practicable for this celiac sufferers. Like other technical innovations, it too requires patience, peservance and diligence.
Composite flour technology has been in the limelight since its inception by Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) to cover the challenges of malnutrition in undeveloped parts of the world (Gujral and Pathak, 2002). This enterprise has paved the way to present an array of products with commercial significance, nutritional benefits and additional advantages of functional and textural parameters (Davy et al., 2000; Akubor and Ukwuru, 2003).
Composite flours developed by supplementing cereal flours (rice, maize, sorghum and pearl millet) with legume flours can alleviate the issue of malnutrition widely prevailing in South Asia without disturbing the keeping quality of finished product. In a research institute of the university of agriculture, Faisalabad keeps in mind the difficulties a celiac sufferer feel while selection of the diet, present project was planned to produce gluten free composite flours using gluten free sources such as maize, rice and chickpea in various combinations for the preparation of chapattis.
Furthermore, a combination of hydrocolloids including carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum was added in all formulations to imitate the gluten requirements during kneading of developed flours. All flours were stored at ambient temperature for a period of 60 days.
Flours were analyzed for physiochemical and compositional analysis at 0, 20, 40 and 60 days storage intervals. Moisture content (10.96-11.30%), protein (7.00-11.22%), fat (2.06-2.09%), ash (1.39-1.62%) and NFE (70.26-77.09%) was observed during treatments. During storage study of flours, moisture (11.25-11.29%) showed an increasing trend while protein (9.03-7.91%) and fat (2.52-2.47%) decreased during storage. Later on, from developed flours, chapattis were developed and analyzed for color, hardness and sensory parameters. Ls (70.21-53.45), a* (1.69-2.96), b* (-24.31 to -35.21) and hardness (1.44-2.26N) showed signified increase with increasing supplementation of flours in chapattis. It is suggested that composite flour technology should be a viable option preferably using native raw materials for the preparation of gluten free composite flours. These flours should be tested by developing chapattis commonly used in this area for maximum acceptability by the consumers. The judges liked the corn flour chapattis supplemented with 20% rice and 20% chickpea flours on the basis of modest taste, texture and feel properties.