Fungi singular fungus, a group of eukaryotic, non-phototrophic organism with
rigid cell wall, that includes mushrooms, molds and yeasts. Fungi absorb
nutrients from dead or living organic matter, have cell walls made up of
chitin, and store surplus energy as a glycogen.
The kingdom fungi contains four phyla: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.
A filamentous thallus is a vegetative mycelium that is produced by fungi,
composed of hyphae that branch and extend via tip elongation. Some groups of
fungi like yeast consists only of individual cells. Hyphae (singular, hypha) are tube-like
filaments. Hyphae has two types, septate and non-septate hyphae. Septate hyphae divide into the
components not into the cells, nuclear material like cytoplasm moves through holes within
components in some groups .Non-septate hyphae is a single multinucleate cells that lack septa.
Septa is cross walls who separating nuclei.
Mycorrhizae known as root fungi, a symbiotic association formed between a fungus and the
roots of a vascular plants. In these associations, the fungi are actually cohesive into the both
physical and biological structure of the root. The fungi colonize the living root tissue during
active plant growth. Ectomycorrhizae are a type of mycorrhizae that procedure a dense sheath
around the physical structure of plant roots, from which the hyphae grow; in
endomycorrhizae, mycelium is entrenched within the root tissue, not forming a sheath around the
root system. In case of endomycorrhizae, mycelium is embedded within the root tissues. It is
opposite to forming a dense sheath around the root system.
A symbiotic relationship of mycorrhizae and plant roots enhances crop roots system. Most plants
form symbiotic relationships called mycorrhizae with fungi that integrate into the plant's root.
Fungus tendrils provides almost 70% to 100% phosphate directly to the plant though both
ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal association, huge mineral boost which may ultimately
reduce the need for farmers to saturate crop fields with phosphate fertilizer. It also somewhat
ensure maximum yield. Mycorrhizal fungi could one day act as a bio-fertilizer who will enhance
fertility of the soil, ultimately yields will be high without using any external fertilizer.
New research by mycologists has found significant consequences from symbiotic association
between soil fungus and plant roots, resulting in changes the genetic expression of resulting crop.
Eliciting additional plant root growth enlarges the root system that enables the plant to absorb
more and more nutrients from the soil.
A new research shows that rice crop can be used as a model for cereal crops, when its root
system examine at a molecular level. Cereal root 'architecture' involves a few big, thickset roots
called crown roots that act as a framework from which all the smaller, lateral roots spread out
into the different layers of soil, which contain the various nutrients.
Phosphate is a very significant element of the fertilizers that driven the Green Revolution in
middle of the 20th century that made it potential then for agriculture to keep up with the growing
global population. In most tropical soils plants have enormous difficulty in obtaining phosphate
and so farmers have to spend a huge amount of money on phosphate fertilizer. Farmers have to
supplement much more fertilizer than in temperate regions and a very large amount of the cost to
produce food is the cost of phosphate.
Phosphate assets are being rapidly reduced day by day. Increasing demand for the nutrient is
driving up prices. Now some countries are storing phosphate to feed their people in the future.
Fungi is helping to greatly increase food-production for the growing needs of the planet without
the need for enormous amounts of fertilizers due to symbiotic association between mycorrhizal
fungi and physical structure of the plant roots. So, fungus enhances physical and biological
structure of the plant roots and could one day be used as bio-fertilizer.
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