You Are At Technology TimesArticlesDrought causes, impact and solution


Drought causes, impact and solution

Climatic changes and global warming are the major issues of 21 st century. Plants are consistently
 
exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. Harmful effects resultant from global climate changes
 
possibly impart losses in crop productivity. Among abiotic stresses, drought is pondered as the
 
single most caustic environmental stress, which not only affects the plant growth and
 
development but also decreases the crop productivity.  
 
A continuous deficit in rainfall combined with higher evapotranspiration demand points towards the agricultural drought.
 
Agricultural drought is the shortage of sufficient moisture necessary for the normal development
 
and growth of plants to complete its life cycle. It mainly focuses on precipitation shortages, soil
 
water deficits and reduced ground water, these all factors mutually results in water stress to
 
plant. Water is the most important aspect for the proper plant growth because under drought
 
condition plants fail to perform their normal growth activities which causes major threat to plant
 
cultivation. About 40 to 60 percent world’s agriculture land has been effected by drought.
 
Drought stress is affected by climatic, edaphic and agronomic factors. The susceptibility of
 
plants to drought stress varies independence of stress degree, different accompanying stress
 
factors, plant species, and their developmental stages. Acclimation of plants to water deficit is
 
the result of different events, which lead to adaptive changes in plant growth and physio-
 
biochemical processes, such as changes in plant structure, growth rate, tissue’s osmotic potential
 
and antioxidant defenses.
 
Drought badly affects the plant growth and development with considerable reductions in biomass
 
accumulation and growth rate in crops. The main concomitants of drought in crop plants are
 
reduced rate of stem elongation and root proliferation, cell division and enlargement, leaf size
 
and disturbed plant water and nutrient relations and stomatal fluctuations with reduced crop
 
productivity and water use efficiency (WUE).
 
Water deficit accelerates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) which decreases the stomatal
 
conductance to lessen the transpirational losses. To cope with such challenges, it is essential to
 
comprehend the effects of drought on plants and morphological and physiological adaptations.
 
Several climate models have anticipated the increased severity and regularity of drought under
 
the continuing universal climate change circumstances. Therefore, it has become imperative to
 
explain the responses and adaptation of crops to water deficit, and take actions to improve the
 
drought resistance ability of crop plants and to ensure higher crop yields against unfavorable
 
environmental stresses. The drought resistant varieties and newly planned irrigation programs are
 
also required to compete with increasing water shortage conditions worldwide.

--

Short Link: http://technologytimes.pk/post.php?id=10509

Tags:

DROUGHT CAUSES IMPACT AND SOLUTION

More Stories:

Comments On This Post

    No Comments Yet…

Leave a Reply