Human brain is complicated. The chief component of it is a stimulated cell neuron which
receives information, process it and convey it to other cells by means of electrical and chemical
signals. The unmitigated figure of these fundamental cells and multitudinous analogy between
them is the ultimate power source of the human mind. It is further supplemented by genetic
programming and personal experience. The scientists and researchers have successfully
completed the development of first artificial neuron that is amazingly capable of imitating the
working of neuron cell with potential to interpret the chemical signals into electrical signals and
report to other cells. These artificial neurons are as small as the size of a fingertip and made up of
conductive molecules or polymers. The researchers aimed at making these so small that it can be
implanted in human brain for real. They hope that in future it is an efficient substitute for injured
nerve cells and make us able to explore new treatments for neurological disorders.
Artificial neurons are somewhat crude computational replicas rely on the neural structure of the
brain. The brain fundamentally acquires knowledge from observation of facts or events.
Advances in scientific research showed great promise in inceptive apprehension of the natural
thinking mechanism. This research unveils the fact that brain hoard information in specific
formats. These convoluted formats empower us to identify individual personalities from many
different approaches. This procedure of gathering information as convoluted formats, exploit
those formats and then simplify the problems encompasses a new field in computing. This area
of research does not involves conventional programming but includes fabricating colossal
homologous nexus and in doctrine those nexus to solve the specific problems.
The biological neurons have four principal components, dendrites the hair like out growths
which act like input channels. The soma or basic body of the cell which processes the incoming
information and converted it into some output signal. This output signal is then exported to other
cells through the axon and the synapses. The entanglement of real neuron is highly pensive when
constructed artificial neurons. At present the aim of artificial neuron is not the monumental
restoration of the brain. Conversely researchers have some thinking to do with the nature’s
abilities for which people can find out solutions to problems that have not been sort out by
conventional computing. In artificial neurons the input signals are multiplied by weights, added
up, fed through a mathematical function to engender a result and then output. The weight of an
artificial neuron is directly proportional to the strength of the input which is multiplied by it.
Negative weight indicates that the signal is inhibited. We can get our desired outputs by altering
the specific inputs. But when an artificial neural network we are dealing with is composed of
hundreds or thousands of neurons it would be quite difficult to calculate all the necessary
weights manually. But algorithms can be utilized to regulate the weights of the artificial neural
networks in order to get the desired output from the nexus. The association between two neurons
is an important feature of neural network. The input acquires variable strength via this linkage.
These linkages are of two types. One is the adding up mechanism of the next neuron while other
is the subtracting mechanism. In biological terminology one stimulates while the other represses.
The basic function of artificial neural network is to process information which is mainly utilizes
in areas linked with it. There are several types of artificial neural networks that are used to mimic
real neurons and examine performance in animals and machines. In addition to these some
artificial neurons are used for schematic purposes like format identification, data computation
and forecasting. With further evolution and remodeling, the researchers believe that the artificial
neurons could be placed inside the body and trigger the release of neurotransmitters at far away
sites. Using such auto regulated artificial neurons opens new and thrilling opportunities for future
investigation and treatment for neurological disorders can be envisaged.
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